Monday, October 1, 2012

TERTULLIAN'S MONTANTIST CONTRADICTION OF THE BIBLE

According to Montantist doctrine and theory, as is recorded in Tertullian, Jesus Christ did – ( not ) – truly die!

Because, according to them, he had Ltn., ( duae substantiae ) “...two substances...” or “...nature[s]...” ( Holmes translation ), simultaneously when existing as a man.

One of "...flesh..." that was Ltn., ( mortalem quae humana ) “...mortal...”!

And one of "...spirit..." that was Ltn., ( immortalem esse divinam ) “...im-mortal...”!

Praxeas himself, and his party, agreed with Tertullian on this particular idea, but, obviously, as everybody knows who has ever read this text, they differed in other details.

Both, Tertullian and Praxaes, and therefore also the Montantist's, contradicted the Bible!

LATIN TEXT: “...quanquam cum duae substantiae censeantur in Christo Iesu, divina et humana, constet autem immortalem esse divinam, ut mortalem quae humana sit, apparet quatenus eum mortuum dicat, [...] non enim ex divina sed ex humana substantia mortuum dicimus...” - (Chapter 29:2-3; “TERTULLIAN'S TREATISE AGAINST PRAXEAS,” Translated by Canon Ernest Evans and published by SPCK, 1948.)

POST-MONTANTIST TERTULLIAN (circa. 185-225 C.E.): “...Now, although when two substances are alleged to be in Christ-namely, the divine and the human - it plainly follows that the divine nature is ( immortal ), and that which is human is ( mortal ), [...] for we do ( not ) maintain that He died after the ( divine nature ), – but only after the ( human )...” - (Chapter 29:2-3; “TERTULLIAN'S AGAINST PRAXEAS,” Translated by Dr. Holmes 1870.)

POST-MONTANTIST TERTULLIAN (circa. 185-225 C.E.): “...And yet, since in Christ Jesus there are assessed two substances, a divine and a human, and it is admitted that the divine is ( immortal ), as that that which is human is ( mortal ), [...] for we say that he died ( not ) in respect of his ( divine ) – but ofhis ( human substance )...” - (Chapter 29:2-3; “TERTULLIAN'S TREATISE AGAINST PRAXEAS,” Translated by Canon Ernest Evans and published by SPCK, 1948.)

How does this theory contradict the Bible?

The Bible clearly states that Jesus was:

ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ 3:18 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...ὅτι καὶ Χριστὸς ἅπαξ περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν ἀπέθανεν, δίκαιος ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων, ἵνα ὑμᾶς προσαγάγῃ τῷ θεῷ θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι...”

ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ 3:18 Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
“...θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι...”

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
“...For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh,
but --- ((( MADE ALIVE IN ))) --- THE --- ((( SPIRIT )))...”

STRONGS 2227: Gk., ( ζωοποιηθεὶς ) “...HAVING BEEN MADE ALIVE...”

Is a compound word made up of:

STRONGS 2221: Gk., ( ζῷον ) “...ALIVE...”

STRONGS 4160: Gk., ( ποιέω ) “...TO MAKE...”

Gk., ( ζωοποιηθεὶς ) = verb, aorist, particple, passive, nominative, masculine, singular. 

And also says clearly at 1st Corinthians 15:45:

ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Α΄ 15:45 Greek NT: WH / UBS
“...οὕτως καὶ γέγραπται· ἐγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν, ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν...”

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
“...So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living soul.”
THE LAST ADAM --- ((( BECAME ))) --- A LIFE-GIVING --- ((( SPIRIT )))...”

Gk., ( ἐγένετο ) “...BECAME...”

Gk., ( πνεῦμα ) “...A ((( SPIRIT )))...”

Gk., ( ζῳοποιοῦν ) “...LIFE-GIVING...”

1ST CORINTHIANS 15:45: “...And thus it stands written, The first man Adam came into existence a living soul. The last Adam became a life-giving spirit...” - (Wuests New Testament: An Expanded Translation By Kenneth S. Wuest, Wm. B. Erdmans Publishing Co. 1961.)

1ST CORINTHIANS 15:45: “...So also as it stands written: “The first man Adam came into existence as a living soul.” The last Adam entered into [a new state of existence] as a life-giving spirit...” - (Matt13weedhacker Paraphrase Translation.)

It is interesting to note that it is the same Greek word used at John 1:3, 10, 14; 1st Cor. 15:45 of things being created or coming into a new state of existence:

John 1:3 Gk., ( ἐγένετο […] ἐγένετο )
John 1:10 Gk., ( ἐγένετο )
John 1:14 Gk., ( ἐγένετο )
1st Cor 15:45 Gk., ( ἐγένετο )

The straight forward Bible teaching is that Jesus was Gk., ( ζωοποιηθεὶς ) “...MADE ((( ALIVE )))...” as and/or in Gk., ( πνεῦμα ) “...((( SPIRIT )))...”!

And also that he Gk., ( ἐγένετο ) “...BECAME...” Gk., ( πνεῦμα ) “...A ((( SPIRIT )))...”!

A life-giving one.

When compared to what Tertullian teaches, that Jesus, when on earth as a man, existed simultaeously as, and by his theory divided his existence into Ltn., ( duae substantiae ) “...two substances...” or “...nature[s]...” just does not agree with this!

Tertullian's interpretation, in his complicated Montantist scheme of things, teaches two natures within one person:

1.) FLESH NATURE: “...namely in that he is flesh and man and Son of Man...” (Evens),
...in which He was flesh and Man and the Son of Man...” (Holmes)

2.) SPIRIT/GOD NATURE: “...in that he - is Spirit - and Word and Son of God...” (Evens), “...as - being the Spirit - and the Word and the Son of God...” (Holmes).

Tertullian equivocates the “...immortal...” -- “...divine nature...” with Jesus as Ltn., ( esse spiritum ) “...THE SPIRIT...”

In the next chapter, (chapter 30), it is referred to as: “...that state in which he is God...” (Evens) “...the conditions of His existence as God...” (Holmes).

This is what Tertullian means when he says Jesus is Ltn., ( spiritum ) “...THE SPIRIT...” - at least in this context anyway.

But getting back to what the the scriptures say in contrast.

First of all the Bible makes a contrast between Jesus Pre-Human existence as the Logos, when he Gk., ( θεὸς ἦν ) “...( was ) a god...” - and – his human existence when he Gk., ( σὰρξ ἐγένετο ) “...( became ) flesh...”

The contrast is between:

1.) ( What ) he Gk., ( ἦν ) “...((( WAS )))...”

2.) ( What ) he Gk., ( ἐγένετο ) “...((( BECAME )))...”

And this very same contrast, also shows up again in what the scriptures say about the end of his human existence and his resurrection from the dead.

In:

1.) ( What ) he died as Gk., ( θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ) “...FLESH...”

2.) ( What ) he Gk., ( ἐγένετο ) “...((( BECAME )))...”

This contrast is also shown ( grammatically ) in the Gk., ( μὲν ) --- Gk., ( δὲ ) contrast and the two precisely parallel limbs in the Greek text of 1st Peter 3:18-19:

L. W. P. LEWIS AND L. M. STYLER: ...RULE NO. 1. Mark the connection at the beginning of every new sentence. 2. Signposts forward. Greek also makes use of Particles to give warning of what is coming ; of these the commonest are : Gk., ( μὲν ) warning the reader a Gk., ( δὲ ) is coming, Gk., ( τε ) warning the reader of a Gk., ( καὶ ) coming “both […] and” and it's negative Gk., ( οὔτε ) […] Gk., ( οὔτε ) “neither […] nor.” When the reader reaches a Gk., ( μὲν ) or Gk., ( τε ) he pulls up short and says: “THERE WILL BE SOMETHING CONTRASTED WITH THIS OR ADDED TO IT LATER IN THE SENTENCE.” […] It is now necessary to describe their uses carefully, because [Page 114] it is impossible to write Greek Prose without employing them. (A) THE TWO LIMBS OF THE CONTRAST MUST BE PRECISELY PARALLEL IN CONSTRUCTION, i.e. both the main verb clauses, both subordinate clauses, or both particle phrases etc...” - (Pages 113-114, “FOUNDATIONS FOR GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION,” By L. W. P. Lewis and L. M. Styler, 1963 re-print edition.)

ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ 3:18-19 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...ὅτι καὶ Χριστὸς ἅπαξ περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν ἀπέθανεν, δίκαιος ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων, ἵνα ὑμᾶς προσαγάγῃ τῷ θεῷ θανατωθεὶς ( μὲν ) σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς ( δὲ ) πνεύματι ἐν ᾧ […] πορευθεὶς...”

ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ 3:18 Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
“...θανατωθεὶς ( μὲν ) σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς ( δὲ ) πνεύματι...”

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
“...For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh,
but --- ((( MADE ALIVE IN ))) --- THE --- ((( SPIRIT ))) IN WHICH also He went...”

THE --- Gk., ( μὲν ) --- Gk., ( δὲ ) --- CONTRAST IN 1ST PETER 3:18:

...θανατωθεὶς ( μὲν ) σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς ( δὲ ) πνεύματι...”

= PRECISELY PARALLEL AND BALANCED CONSTRUCTION

...θανατωθεὶς --- μὲν --- σαρκὶ...”
...ζῳοποιηθεὶς --- δὲ --- πνεύματι...”

= PERFECT CONTRAST OF SPHERES OF EXISTENCE AND ACTIVITY

Gk., ( σαρκὶ ) = noun, ( dative ), feminine, singular, ( zero-article )
Gk., ( πνεύματι ) = noun, ( dative ), neuter, singular, ( zero-article )

So, if Jesus as a man was made up of ( both ) of Tertullians “...TWO SUBSTANCES...” or NATURES simultaneously as a man on earth, and it was only the “...FLESH...” - “...NATURE...” that died, --- why then --- does the Bible contradict this, when it says he was:

Gk., ( ζωοποιηθεὶς ) “...MADE ((( ALIVE )))...”

1st Peter 3:19(A) Gk., ( ἐν ᾧ ) “...IN...” Gk., ( πνεῦμα ) “...((( SPIRIT )))...”

And at 1st Cor. 15:45, that he Gk., ( ἐγένετο ) “...((( BECAME )))...” one?

Gk., ( πνεῦμα ) “...A ((( SPIRIT )))...”!

If Tertullian's Montantist theory was the truth?

Then it should be plain and obvious to see that the doctrinal implications of Gk., ( ζωοποιηθεὶς ) “...MADE ALIVE...” and Gk., ( ἐγένετο ) “...BECAME...”!

According to the Bible Jesus did not have an Ltn., ( immortalem [...] divinam [...] spiritum ) nature wrapped up or hiding with-in his flesh.

Jesus Gk., ( σὰρξ ἐγένετο ) “...BECAME FLESH...”!

Or as Kenneth Wuest put it, at John 1:14(A), in his Expanded New Testament translation:

...the Word, entering a new mode of existence, became flesh...”

He: “...came to be flesh...”
He: “...came into existence being flesh...”
He: “...came into existence as flesh...”

So according to 1st Peter 3:18, Jesus was, as a flesh and blood human being, truly and completely dead ) in every respect possible in order for God to say that He made him: 

"...((( ALIVE )))..."! 

In or as Gk., ( πνεῦμα ) “...A ((( SPIRIT )))...”!

Which, according to Tertullian, --- never died at all.

You think about it! 

Who was right to you? Which doctrine will you chose?

FEEL FREE TO COMMENT

Members comments and thoughts are always welcome.

Genuine questions are always welcome.

Verbal abuse of Jehovah's Witnesses is not welcome.

DISCLAIMER: THIS WEBSITE IS --- ( NOT ) --- AN OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF THE WATCHTOWER BIBLE AND TRACT SOCIETY This is a personal website that is not officially supported nor endorsed by the WBTS. The Watchtower Society cannot be held responsible or liable for the content found on this blog/website. Links are offered here for additional reading, however the manager of this site does not necessarily support every comment on all of these sites. You are invited to conduct your own research. To those who are not Jehovah's Witnesses, please remember that if you are looking for the authoritative information on beliefs, practices and news releases you should look to the source at http://www.watchtower.org/

No comments:

Post a Comment