Tuesday, August 30, 2011

CHRIST AS ANGEL IN ANCIENT CHRISTIAN TRADITION

Interesting reasoning to think about in these statements:

How could "God" be an "Angel" of himself?

THEODORET OF CYRUS (circa. 393-457 C.E.): "...The whole passage (Exodus 3) shows that it was God who appeared to him. BUT (MOSES) CALLED HIM[*] AN ANGEL in order to let us know that it was not God the Father whom he saw — FOR WHOSE ANGEL COULD THE FATHER BE?BUT THE ONLY-BEGOTTEN SON, THE ANGEL OF GREAT COUNSEL..." - (Commentary "In Exodus" Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)
[FOOTNOTE]: Refering to Jesus as the Angel of the Lord in the OT.

Compare the above with a statement from earlier Christians:

COUNCIL OF ANTIOCH (circa 264-269 C.E.): "...Sometimes he is testified to as "an Angel," but sometimes as "a lord," but also sometimes as "a god." FOR IT IS TOO UN-REVERENTIAL TO EVEN THINK OF CALLING THE DEFINITIVE GOD OF THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE “AN ANGEL.” But the Son is thee Angel of the Father. Being himself a lord and a god. As it is written: “[the] Angel of His Great Purpose[*]..." - (Epist. Synodic. ad Paul. Samos. Translated by Matt13weedhacker 28/08/2011)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Isa 9:6; LXX., or "...Angel of Great Counsel..."

HENRY NEWMAN: "...Again, the Council of Antioch, which condemned Paul of Samosata, says that He "...appears to the Patriarchs and converses with them, being testified sometimes to be an Angel, at other times Lord, at others God;" that, WHILE "IT IS IMPIOUS TO THINK THAT THE GOD OF ALL IS CALLED AN ANGEL, THE SON IS THE ANGEL OF THE FATHER[15]..." - (Section 2. Our Lord's Incarnation and the Dignity of His Blessed Mother and of All Saints, Chapter 4. Instances in Illustration, NEWMAN READER.)
[FOOTNOTE 15]: Reliqu. Sacr. t. ii. p. 469, 470.

Even as late as the Council of Chanceldon the tradition of calling Christ an Angel continued in some form or degree:

Encouraging faith in the very words of Isiah 9:6 LXX when writing against Nestorious:

COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON (A.D. 451): “...read with faith the words of the same prophet, Unto us a Child has been born, unto us a Son has been given, whose power is on his shoulder; and they shall call his name Angel of great counsel, Wonderful, Counsellor, Strong God, Prince of Peace, Father of the age to come...” - (Extracts from the Acts: Session II Continued. Translated by Henry Percival. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 14. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1900.)

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

LATIN TEXT: “...quis ergo est iste, qui in forma dei, ut diximus, factus est angelus? sed nec in angelis formam dei legimus; nisi quoniam hic praecipuus atque
generosus prae omnibus dei filius, uerbum dei, imitator omnium paternorum operum, dum et ipse operatur sicut et pater eius, in forma (ut expressimus) est dei patris...” - (Chapter XXII, CAMBRIDGE PATRISTIC TEXTS: NOVATIANI ROMANAE VRBIS PRESBYTERI DE TRINITATE LIBER - “NOVATIAN'S TREATISE ON THE TRINITY EDITED BY W. Yorke Fausset, MA., CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1909)

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...WHO THEN IS THAT ANGEL WHO, AS WE HAVE SAID, WAS MADE IN THE FORM OF GOD? But neither do we read of the form of God in angels, EXCEPT BECAUSE THIS ONE IS CHIEF AND ROYAL ABOVE ALL—THE SON OF GOD, THE WORD OF GOD, the imitator of all His Father’s works, in that He Himself worketh even as His Father. He is—as we have declared—in the form of God the Father....” - (Chapter Chapter XXII. A Treatise of Novatian Concerning the Trinity. ANF Roberts & Donaldson)

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...Therefore, WHO IS THE ONE WHO WAS ( MADE ) IN THE FORM OF GOD, as we have said? AN ANGEL? But we do not read of angels in the form of God, UNLESS IT IS BECAUSE THIS PARTICULAR ANGEL IS ALSO THE SON OF GOD, NOBLE ABOVE ALL, THE WORD OF GOD, the one who does all of the Father’s works, since He works like His Father, and He is the form of God the Father, as we have explained...” - (Chapter 22:3; THE RULE OF TRUTH A TRANSLATION OF THE DE TRINITATE OF NOVATIAN by Novatianus, Priest of Rome, c. 240 AD, Translation by Jim L. Papandrea, 1998.)

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...So then, who is this? WHO WAS THIS ANGEL MADE[*] 'IN GODS FORM'? HOW IS HE AN ANGEL? And yet I gather Angels are not in 'Gods form'; UNLESS THIS (ONE) IS EXCEPTIONIONAL, [AND] IN FACT IS THE SPECIAL CHIEF[#], SUPERIOR, EXTREMELY HIGH COMPARED TO ALL OTHERS, GODS SON, THE WORD OF GOD, the imitator of all the works that belong to his Father, in that he operates just as his Father does, (to be His representive[^]), - as already explained - the one 'in the form of God' the Father...” - (Chapter 22:3; THE RULE OF TRUTH or DE TRINITATE - Translation by Matt13weedhacker Revised version 31/08/11)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Latin., (factus) = “...to make in all senses, to do, perform, accomplish, prepare, produce, bring to pass, cause, effect, create, commit, perpetrate, form, fashion, etc...” - (A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1879.)
Latin., (factus) = “...to make, construct, fashion, frame, build, erect, produce, compose...” - (Lewis, Charlton, T. An Elementary Latin Dictionary. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago. American Book Company. 1890.)
[FOOTNOTE #]: Ltn., (praecipuus)
[FOOTNOTE ^]: Ltn., (expressimus)

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

Taken from the last chapter, which was written by Mrs. Collins (a Catholic writer). The first quote has to do with Justin Martyr:

YARBO & COLLINS: "...Justin may have had John 1:1c Prov. 8.22-31 ... The Gospel and Revelation both present Jesus as preexistent and as divine in some sense. In the Gospel, he is either an emanation of God or God’s first creature, namely, the only-begotten god. In Revelation, THE EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT HE IS GOD’S FIRST CREATURE, NAMELY, THE PRINCIPAL ANGEL..." - (p. 203 “King and Messiah as Son of God: Divine, Human, and Angelic Figures in Biblical and Related Literature”, by Adela Yarbro Collins and John J. Collins)

YARBO & COLLINS: "...it should be noted that personified wisdom participates as a creature in God’s activity of creation according to Prov 8:22 LXX...” - (p. 213 “King and Messiah as Son of God: Divine, Human, and Angelic Figures in Biblical and Related Literature”, by Adela Yarbro Collins and John J. Collins)

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...the imitator[5183] of His Father’s works and powers, “the image of the invisible God;”[5184] “who came down from heaven;”[5185] who testified what things he had seen and heard; who “came not to do His own will, but rather to do the will of the Father,”[5186] by whom He had been sent for this very purpose, that being made the “[ANGEL] MESSENGER OF GREAT COUNSEL,”[5187]...” - (Chapter XXI. A Treatise of Novatian Concerning the Trinity. ANF Roberts & Donaldson)
[FOOTNOTE 5183]: John v. 19. The infirmities of language are such that cunning men like Petavius can construct anti-Nicene doctrine out of Scripture itself; and the marvel is, that the Christian Fathers before the Council of Nicæa generally use such precision of language, although they lacked the synodical definitions.
[FOOTNOTE 5184]: Col. i. 15.
[FOOTNOTE 5185]: John iii. 31, 32.
[FOOTNOTE 5186]: John iv. 38.
[FOOTNOTE 5187]: Isa. ix. 6.

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...And thus, although Christ had not been born as yet in the times of Isaiah the prophet, he said, “For unto us a child is born;”[5238] and although Mary had not yet been approached, he said, “And I approached unto the prophetess; and she conceived, and bare a son.”[5239] And when Christ had not yet made known the mind of the Father, it is said, “And His name shall be called THE ANGEL OF GREAT COUNSEL.”[5240]...” - (Chapter XXVIII. A Treatise of Novatian Concerning the Trinity. ANF Roberts & Donaldson)
[FOOTNOTE 5238]: Isa. ix. 6.
[FOOTNOTE 5239]: Isa. viii. 3.
[FOOTNOTE 5240]: Isa. ix. 6, LXX. See pp. 628, 632, supra.

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

LATIN TEXT: “...Est enim periculum grande, Salvatorem generis humani, totius Dominem et Principem mundi, cui a suo Patre omnia tradita sunt et cuncta concessa, per quem instituta sunt universa, creata sunt tota, digesta sunt cuncta, aevorum omnium et temporum Regum, ANGELORUM OMNIUM PRINCIPEM, ante quem nihil praeter Patrem, hominem tantummodo dicere, et auctoritatem illi divinam in his abnegare. Haec enim contumelia haereticorum ad ipsum quoque Deum Patrem redundabit, si Deus Pater Filium Deum generare non potuit. Sed enim veritati caecitas haereticorum nulla praescribet...” - (Page 713, De. Trinitate. Chap. 11:2., Appendix A: THE RULE OF TRUTH A TRANSLATION OF THE DE TRINITATE OF NOVATIAN (Novatianus, Priest of Rome, c. 240 AD) Translation by Jim L. Papandrea, 1998.)

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...For it is a great danger to say that the Savior of the human race is only a man; the Lord of all and the Ruler of the world, to whom “all things have been given by [His] Father”[185] and everything submits, through whom all things were ordered, all things were created, all things were arranged, the King of all ages[186] and times, THE [PRINCE] RULER OF ALL ANGELS, before whom nothing [existed] except the
Father, and to deny His divine authority in these things. For this insult of the heretics will also extend to God the Father Himself, if God the Father was not able to generate[187] the Son of God...” - (De. Trinitate. Chap. 11:2., Appendix A: THE RULE OF TRUTH A TRANSLATION OF THE DE TRINITATE OF NOVATIAN (Novatianus, Priest of Rome, c. 240 AD) Translation by Jim L. Papandrea, 1998.)
[FOOTNOTE 185]: Matthew 11:27.
[FOOTNOTE 186]: Allusion to I Timothy 1:17.
[FOOTNOTE 187]: generare

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...For there is a great risk of saying that the Saviour of the human race was only man; that the Lord of all, and the Chief of the world, to whom all things were delivered, and all things were granted by His Father, [Ltn., ( per ) "THROUGH"] by whom all things were ordained, all things were created, all things were arranged, the King of all ages and times, THE PRINCE OF ALL THE ANGELS, before whom there is none but the Father, was only man, and denying to Him divine authority in these things...” - (De. Trinitate. Chap. 11. ANF Roberts & Donalson.)

NOVATION (circa. 210–280 C.E.): “...HE ( IS ) ALSO AN ANGEL, but He was destined of the Father as AN ANGEL to announce the Great Counsel of God...” - (Chapter XXXI. A Treatise of Novatian Concerning the Trinity. ANF Roberts & Donaldson) 

Compare:

LATIN TEXT: “...uti sicut in supercoelestibus, et spiritalibus, et invisibilibus princeps est Verbum Dei ; sic et in visibilibus, et corporalibus principatum habeat, in semetipsum primatum assumens...” - (Page 72, THE THIRD BOOK OF AGAINST HERESIES BY ST. IRENAEUS, Bishop of Lyons With Short Notes, And A Glossary, by Henry Deane, B. D. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, M DCCC LXXIV.)

IRENAEUS OF LYONS (circa. 130-200 C.E.) : “...that, as the Word of God ( is ) PRINCE AMONG THE SUPER-CELESTIAL AND SPIRITUAL, AND INVISIBLE BEINGS, so He may have the pre-eminence ( also ) among the visible and corporeal...” - (Page 691, Irenaeus, [Book] III. [Chapter] 18, p. 241 APPENDIX, DEFENSIO FIDEI NICAENAE Vol 4. By Bishop George Bull)
[PERSONAL NOTE]: BOOK 3, Chap. 16, Verse 6. is the corresponding reference in ANF Roberts & Donalson. 

Monday, August 29, 2011

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

GREEK TEXT: "...Ὅπερ ἔργον ἦν τοῦ, ὡς ὠνόμασεν ἡ περὶ αὐτοῦ προφητεία, οὐχ ἁπαξαπλῶς ἀγγέλου ἀλλὰ τοῦ τῆς «μεγάλης βουλῆς» ἀγγέλου· ἤγγελλε γὰρ ἀνθρώποις τὴν μεγάλην τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς τῶν ὅλων περὶ αὐτῶν βουλήν..." - (Against Celsus Book 5. Chapter 53. MPG.)

ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA (circa 185-253 C.E.): "...saying of the Saviour, "Let him appear to be really an angel," we reply that we do not accept of such a concession from Celsus; but we look to the work of Him who came to visit the whole human race in His word and teaching, as each one of His adherents was capable of receiving Him. And this was the work of one who, as the prophecy regarding Him said, was NOT SIMPLY AN ANGEL, BUT THE "ANGEL OF THE GREAT COUNSEL": for He announced to men the great counsel of the God and Father of all things regarding them, ... And he thinks he can meet either of these dilemmas at great length, although there is not a single real Christian who asserts that Christ was the only being that visited the human race..." - (Against Celsus Book V. Chapter 53, Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)
[FOOTNOTE]: Cf. VIII.27.

ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA (circa 185-253 C.E.): "...This was the work of one who, as the prophecy about him gives him the name, not of an Angel in general, but thee "Angel of His Great Purpose". For he bears the message to man-kind of the great purpose from the ( definitive ) God and Father of the entire universe concerning his counsel..." - (Against Celsus Book 5. Chapter 53. translated by Matt13weedhacker 29/08/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ἁπαξαπλῶς ) "...in general..."
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( τοῦ τῆς «μεγάλης βουλῆς» ἀγγέλου ) or "...thee Angel of Great Counsel..." or "...the Angel of the "Great Purpose"..." compare Isaiah 9:6 LXX.
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ἤγγελλε ) "...to bear a message or report..."

Sunday, August 28, 2011

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

MILETO OF SARDIS (circa 110 to 177 C.E.): "...Chief Priest; among kings, the Ruler; among prophets, the Prophet; AMONG THE ANGELS, ARCHANGEL; in the voice of the preacher, the Word; ... He who appeared to the apostles; He who was carried up to heaven; He who is seated at the right hand of the Father; He who is the repose of those that are departed; the recoverer of those that are lost; the light of those that are in darkness; the deliverer of those that are captive; the guide of those that go astray; the asylum of the afflicted; the bridegroom of the Church; THE CHARIOTEER OF THE CHERUBIM; THE CAPTAIN OF THE ANGELS..." - (Fragments of Melito, the Philosopher. IV. On Faith. Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)  
[FOOTNOTE]: This text does call him a god as well. It also should be noted that at times this same fragment has been attributed to Irenaeus of Lyon's as well.

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

LATIN TEXT: “...uti sicut in supercoelestibus, et spiritalibus, et invisibilibus princeps est Verbum Dei ; sic et in visibilibus, et corporalibus principatum habeat, in semetipsum primatum assumens...” - (Page 72, THE THIRD BOOK OF AGAINST HERESIES BY ST. IRENAEUS, Bishop of Lyons With Short Notes, And A Glossary, by Henry Deane, B. D. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, M DCCC LXXIV.)

IRENAEUS OF LYONS (circa. 130-200 C.E.) : “...that, as the Word of God ( is ) PRINCE AMONG THE SUPER-CELESTIAL AND SPIRITUAL, AND INVISIBLE BEINGS, so He may have the pre-eminence ( also ) among the visible and corporeal...” - (Page 691, Irenaeus, [Book] III. [Chapter] 18, p. 241 APPENDIX, DEFENSIO FIDEI NICAENAE Vol 4. By Bishop George Bull)
[PERSONAL NOTE]: BOOK 3, Chap. 16, Verse 6. is the corresponding reference in ANF Roberts & Donalson.

LATIN TEXT: "...qui ex fructu ventris David Emmanuel, magni consilii Patirs nuntius..." - (Page 69, THE THIRD BOOK OF AGAINST HERESIES BY ST. IRENAEUS, Bishop of Lyons With Short Notes, And A Glossary, by Henry Deane, B. D. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, M DCCC LXXIV.)

IRENAEUS OF LYONS (circa. 130-200 C.E.) : “...Knowing one and the same Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was announced by the prophets, who from the fruit of David’s body was Emmanuel, ‘THE ANGEL OF GREAT COUNSEL OF THE FATHER’...“ - (Adv. Haer. 3.16.3; Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)

LATIN TEXT: "...et vocatur nomen eius Magni Consilii Angelus ... Et Magni Consilii dicit[ur] Angelus Patris..." - (Page 96/97; Chapter 56; DEMONSTRATIO APOSTOLICAE PRAEDICATIONIS LATINE REDDITA. Simon Weber 1917.)

IRENAEUS OF LYONS (circa. 130-200 C.E.) : “...And again Isaiah says: “And they shall wish that they had been burnt with fire; for a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose government is set upon His shoulders; and His name is called MESSENGER OF GREAT COUNSEL.” … But the words “whose government is set upon His shoulders” mean allegorically the Cross, on which He held His back when He was crucified.[84] … And he says “MESSENGER OF GREAT COUNSEL”: MESSENGER OF THE FATHER, whom he announced to us...” - (Demonstration Of Apostoloic Preaching Chapter 56. translated by J. A. Robinson 1920)

IRENAEUS OF LYONS (circa. 130-200 C.E.) : “...Now THE ANGEL WHO APPEARED TO BALAAM WAS THE WORD HIMSELF; and in His hand He held a sword, to indicate the power which he had from above..." - (XXIII. FRAGMENTS FROM THE LOST WRITINGS OF IRENAEUS Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA & IN ANCIENT JEWISH ANTIQUITY

GREEK TEXT: “…κατὰ [146(b).] τὸν πρωτόγονον αὐτοῦ λόγον, τὸν ἀγγέλων πρεσβύτατον, ὡς ἂν ἀρχάγγελον, πολυώνυμον ὑπάρχοντα· καὶ γὰρ ἀρχὴ καὶ ὄνομα θεοῦ καὶ λόγος καὶ ὁ κατ’ εἰκόνα ἄνθρωπος καὶ ὁ ὁρῶν, Ἰσραήλ, προσαγορεύεται...” - (Chapter 27:146(b), ΠΕΡΙ ΣΥΓΧΥΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΑΛΕΚΤΩΝ, MPG.)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E to 50 C.E.): "...according to HIS FIRST-BORN WORD, THE ELDEST OF HIS ANGELS, AS THE GREAT ARCH-ANGEL OF MANY NAMES; for he is called, the Authority, and the name of god, and the Word, and Man according to God's image, and He who sees Israel..." - (p. 247, The Works of Philo, "On the Confusion of Tongues," translated by C.D. Yonge)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E to 50 C.E.): "...in relation to (God's) First-born and eldest Messenger [Gk., ( angelos )], the Word: that is the multi-named Archangel (who was) at the beginning. For he is also called "the Beginning" and THE "NAME OF GOD" and the "Word" and the "Man after his Image" and "Israel the Seer..." - (Philo, Confusion 145-146 (Perspective on the World of Jesus with new translations from primary texts 1999-2008 by Mahlon H. Smith)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E to 50 C.E.): "...according to [THE] FIRST ONE TO BE BORN, HIS LOGOS, THE OLDEST OF THE ANGELS, CERTAINLY AS [THE] ARCH-ANGEL HAVING MULTIPLE NAMES, WHO CAME INTO EXISTENCE FROM UNDER A BEGINNING. For he is also named: "Beginning" and "Name of God" and "Logos" and "Man according to His image" and "The Seer", "Israel"..." - (Philo Judaeus, Latin Tittle: "De Confusione Linguarum" Greek Tittle: ΠΕΡΙ ΣΥΓΧΥΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΑΛΕΚΤΩΝ or "Concerning [the] Confusion of Dialects" Translated by Matt13weedhacker 4/7/11-Revised 12/09/11)

Also compare:

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E to 50 C.E.): "...And the Father who created the universe has given to HIS ARCHANGELIC AND MOST ANCIENT WORD [Logos] a pre-eminent gift, to stand on the confines of both, and separated that which had been created from the Creator. And this same Word [Logos] is continually a suppliant to the immortal God on behalf of the mortal race, which is exposed to affliction and misery; and IS ALSO THE AMBASSADOR, SENT BY THE RULER OF ALL, to the subject race..." - (p. 293, The Works of Philo, "Who Is the Heir of Divine Things," translated by C.D. Yonge)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E to 50 C.E.): "...For as those who are not able to look upon the sun itself, look upon the reflected rays of the sun as the sun itself, and upon the halo around the moon as if it were the moon itself; SO ALSO DO THOSE WHO ARE UNABLE TO BEAR THE SIGHT OF GOD, LOOK UPON HIS IMAGE, HIS ANGEL WORD [Logos], AS HIMSELF..." - (p. 386, The Works of Philo, "On Dreams, I," translated by C.D. Yonge)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E to 50 C.E.): "...For God, like a shepherd and a king, governs (as if they were a flock of sheep) the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and all the plants, and living creatures that are in them, whether mortal or divine . . . APPOINTING AS THEIR IMMEDIATE SUPERINTENDENT, HIS OWN RIGHT REASON [Logos], HIS FIRSTBORN SON, WHO IS TO RECEIVE THE CHARGE OF THIS SACRED COMPANY, AS THE LIEUTENANT OF THE GREAT KING; FOR IT IS SAID SOMEWHERE, "BEHOLD, I AM HE! I WILL SEND MY MESSENGER [ANGEL] BEFORE THY FACE, WHO SHALL KEEP THEE IN THE ROAD [Exo. 23:20]..." - (p. 178, The Works of Philo, "On Husbandry," translated by C.D. Yonge)

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

Compare Hippolytus passage about "...WHO IS MICHAEL?..." with what Clement of Alexandria said about the Jesus:

GREEK TEXT: "...Ἐνταῦθα [1.] διδάσκαλός ἐστι παιδαγωγίας· καὶ γὰρ ἦν ὡς ἀληθῶς διὰ μὲν Μωσέως παιδαγωγὸς ὁ κύριος τοῦ λαοῦ τοῦ παλαιοῦ, δι' αὑτοῦ δὲ τοῦ νέου καθηγεμὼν λαοῦ, πρόσωπον πρὸς πρόσωπον. Ἰδού, γάρ φησι τῷ Μωσεῖ, ὁ ἄγγελός μου προπορεύεταί σου, τὴν εὐαγγέλιον καὶ ἡγεμόνιον ἐπιστήσας τοῦ λόγου [2.] δύναμιν...” - (The Instructor, Book I, chapter VII, MPG [1.7.58.1,2])

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (circa. 153 to 217 C.E.): "...Here He is the teacher of the art of instruction. For it was really the Lord that was the instructor of the ancient people by Moses; but He is the instructor of the new people by Himself, face to face. “For behold,” He says to Moses, “MY ANGEL SHALL GO BEFORE THEE,” representing the evangelical and commanding power of the Word, but guarding the Lord’s prerogative. “In the day on which I will visit them,[1155]..." — (The Instructor, Book I, chapter VII (7); ANF Roberts & Donaldson, Vol. II, p. 224.)
[FOOTNOTE 1155]: Ex. xxxii. 33, 34. 

I disagree with the translation of Gk., ( τὴν εὐαγγέλιον καὶ ἡγεμόνιον ἐπιστήσας τοῦ λόγου δύναμιν ): "...representing the evangelical and commanding power of the Word..."

I think it is better translated: 

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (circa. 153 to 217 C.E.): "...In this place here He is [the] Teacher of the instruction. For it was in truth, even the Lord, through Moses, the Instructor, even a new leader, but through the intermediate agency of him, face to face. For "Behold!" as it says to Moses: "MY ( PERSONAL ) ANGEL[*] WILL JOURNEY BEFORE YOU," establishing the good news and leadership of the powerful Logos..." - (The Instructor, Book I, chapter VII; translated by Matt13weedhacker 29/08/2011 revised 2/09/11)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Gk., ( ὁ ἄγγελος μου ) Literally: "...the Angel of me..."
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ἐπιστήσας ) "...to set up..." or "...establish..."
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., (  ἡγεμόνιον ) "...to guide..." or "...to lead..."

And a little bit further on in the same passage:

GREEK TEXT: “...Τὸ μὲν οὖν πρότερον τῷ πρεσβυτέρῳ λαῷ πρεσβυτέρα διαθήκη ἦν καὶ νόμος ἐπαιδαγώγει τὸν λαὸν μετὰ φόβου καὶ λόγος ἄγγελος ἦν, καινῷ δὲ καὶ νέῳ λαῷ καινὴ καὶ νέα διαθήκη δεδώρηται καὶ ὁ λόγος γεγέννηται καὶ ὁ φόβος εἰς ἀγάπην μετατέτραπται καὶ ὁ μυστικὸς ἐκεῖνος ἄγγελος Ἰησοῦς τίκτεται...” - (The Instructor, Book I, chapter VII, MPG [1.7.59.1,2])

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (circa. 153 to 217 C.E.): "...Formerly the older people [the Israelites] had an old covenant, and the law disciplined the people with fear, and THE WORD WAS AN ANGEL; but the fresh and new people [the Christians] has also been given a new covenant, and the Word has appeared, and fear turned into love, and THAT MYSTIC ANGEL IS BORN—JESUS..." — (The Instructor, Book I, chapter VII (7); ANF Roberts & Donaldson, Vol. II, p. 224.)

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (circa. 153 to 217 C.E.): “...Certainly in former times there was existing for the older people an older covenant and law to educate the people along with fear, AND [THE] LOGOS WAS AN ANGEL,[#] but to a new people of a new kind, a [correspondingly] new covenant of a new kind was given, and the Logos came to be born, and the fear was turned into love, AND THIS MYSTICAL PERSON, AN ANGEL, JESUS, IS BORN[*]...” - (The Instructor, Book I, chapter VII; translated by Matt13weedhacker 13/2/2011)
[FOOTNOTE #]: Gk., ( καὶ λόγος ἄγγελος ἦν ) Lit., "...and Logos an Angel was..."
[FOOTNOTE *]: Gk., ( καὶ ὁ μυστικὸς ἐκεῖνος ἄγγελος Ἰησοῦς τίκτεται )

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

GREEK TEXT: “...τίς δὲ ἐστιν Μιχαἠ ἀλλ' ἢ ὁ ἄγγελος ὁ τῷ λαῷ παραδεδομένος, ὡς λέγει τῷ Μωὐσῃ. Οὐ μὴ πορευθῶ μεθ' ὑμῶν ἐν τῃ ὁδῷ διὰ τὸ τὸν λαὸν σκληροτράχηλον εἶναι, ἀλλ' ἢ ὁ ἄγγελος μου πορεύσειται μεθ' ὑμῶν...” - (From the Greek text of Marcel Richard’s GCS series Kommentar zu Daniel.)

HIPPOLYTUS (circa 170—236 C.E.): "...and Who is Michael but the Angel assigned to the people? As (God) says to Moses. "I will not go with you in the way, because the people are stiff-necked; but My Angel shall go with you..." — (Scholia On Daniel, 13; ANF Roberts & Donalson, Vol. V (5), p. 190.)
[FOOTNOTE]: Compare, Exodus 14:19; 23:20, 3; 32:34; 1 Corinthians 10:4.

HIPPOLYTUS (circa 170—236 C.E.): “...But [40.4.] who is Michael, but the Angel who is granted to the people, as he says to Moses, “I will not go with you on the way because the people are stiff necked, but my Angel will go with you”?[4] [40.5.] This one stood against Moses in the encampment when he carried the uncircumcised boy[5] to Egypt. For it was not possible for Moses to be the elder and mediator of the law, who also announced the covenant of the fathers, and also to lead the uncircumcised boy, so that he may not be considered by the people as a false prophet and a deceiver...” - (Hippolytus of Rome: Commentary on Daniel Book 4, Chapter 40:4,5; ©2010 T.C. Schmidt 1st Edition, Translated from the Greek text of Marcel Richard’s GCS series Kommentar zu Daniel.)
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Exodus 33:3
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Exodus 4:24-25

HIPPOLYTUS (circa 170—236 C.E.): “...BUT WHO IS MICHAEL? None other than the Angel, the (one) that was given to be alongside to the people, even as it was said to Moses: “I will definitely not journey along with you in this way, through the fact of this people being so hard-hearted; but MY PERSONAL[*] ANGEL will journey in company with you.”...” - (Hippolytus of Rome: Commentary on Daniel Book 4, Chapter 40:4,5; translated by Matt13weedhacker 13/2/2011)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Gk., ( ὁ ἄγγελος μου ) Literally: "...the Angel of me..."

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

MARTIN WERNER: “...The belief that Michael the Archangel was the same as the Word, or the celestial Son of God is not a modern notion. It dates from earliest times in the universal church. The contemporary of Paul, rabbi Philo of Judea, ‘identified the Logos with the archangel Michael...” - (Formation of Christian Dogma, Professor Martin Werner, page 133)

MARTIN WERNER: “...The counterpart o this is afforded by an identification of Christ with the archangel Michael, an identification which is made in the Shepherd of Hermas. ... According to the early Christian writing Of The Threefold Fruits, Christ, as one of the seven archangels of God, was created ‘from fire’ and exalted to the status of ‘Son..." - (Formation of Christian Dogma, Professor Martin Werner, page 135)

MARTIN WERNER: “...In the 19th century the Berlin Old Testament student, who was also editor of a church newspaper and an ecclesiastical politician, Ernest Wilhelm Hengstenberg, in his many-volumed work on the Christology of the Old Testament, concentrated upon the Early Christian identification of Christ with the angelic figures of the Old Testament, particularly the archangel Michael..." - (Formation of Christian Dogma, Professor Martin Werner, page 137)

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

COUNCIL OF ANTIOCH (circa 264-269 C.E.): "...The Son (say they) is sometimes called an Angel, sometimes the Lord, sometimes God. For it is[*] impious to imagine that the God of the Universe is anywhere called an Angel. But the Angel [or Messenger] of the Father, is the Son, who Himself is Lord and God. For it is written: "The Angel of his great Counsel,"[or Covenant]..." - (Page 65 The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity, and Related Writings - By Samuel Clarke)

COUNCIL OF ANTIOCH (circa 264-269 C.E.): "...Sometimes he is testified to as "an Angel," but sometimes as "a lord," but also sometimes as "a god." For it is too un-reverential to even think of calling the definitive God of the entire universe “an Angel.” But the Son is thee Angel of the Father. Being himself a lord and a god. As it is written: “[the] Angel of His Great Purpose[*]..." - (Epist. Synodic. ad Paul. Samos. Translated by Matt13weedhacker 28/08/2011)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Isa 9:6; LXX., or "...Angel of Great Counsel..."

Monday, August 22, 2011

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA

ALAN F. SEGAL: "...I must be content only to mention the Angel in the Shepherd of Hermas, which should been seen as intimately related to principal angel traditions in apocalyptic literature. Hermas talks in many places of a highest angel worthy of reverence, whom most commentators have identified as the Son of God.[3] The Angel is given the name Michael,[4] yet the conclusion that he is the equivalent to the Son of God or the Christ, is difficult to escape.[5] Both are invested with supreme power over the people of God; both pronounce judgement on the faithful; both hand sinners over to the angel of repentance to record them.[6]..." - (Page 220, "Two powers in heaven: early rabbinic reports about Christianity and Gnosticism." By Alan F. Segal 2002.)
[FOOTNOTE 3]: See Barbel, p. 47, n. 4.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Sim. 8, 3, 3.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: Sim. 8, 3, 3 and 5, 6, 4.
[FOOTNOTE 6]: Sim. 5, 2-7; 9, 6, 3-6; 9, 10, 4; 8, 2, 5; 8, 4, 3; 9, 7, 1. For a more detailed exposition of the relationship between the angel in Hermas and the angel of YHWH see H. Moxnes, "God and His Angel in the Shepherd of Hermas," Studia Theologica, 28 (1974), 49-56. He shows that language normally used of God, e.g., as the sender of angels, has been transferred to the principal angel.

LARRY W. HURTADO: "...the text essentiallly presupposes and affirms basic ideas about Jesus as the key agent of divine redemption that are attested in numerous other texts of proto-orthodox circles of the time. As sent forth from God, Jesus can be reffered to as God's particular angelos (messenger), which surely forms a part of the conceptual categories used in Hermas. But Jesus is distinguished as the "one Angel of ultimate importance," and is not simply one among others.[116]..." - (Page 604, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity By Larry W. Hurtado 2005.)
[FOOTNOTE 116]: Halvor Moxnes, "God and His Angel in the Shepherd of Hermas," ST, 28 (1974): 55 (49-56). E.g., in Vis, 5.1 the shepherd is sent to Hermas by "the revered angel [ tou semnotatou angelou ]"; in Sim. 9.3 the same figure is referred to as "the glorious angel [ tou endoxou angelou ]"; and in Sim. 10.1, probably the same angel figure addresses Hermas.

J. N. D. KELLY: “...In a number of passages we read of an angel who is superior to the six angels forming God’s inner council, and who is regularly described as ‘most venerable’, ‘holy’, and ‘glorious’. This angel is given the name of Michael, and the conclusion is difficult to escape that Hermas saw in him the Son of God and equated him with the archangel Michael...” - (Early Christian Doctrines, by J. N. D. Kelly, Second Edition, 1960, pages 94-5.)

EDMUND J. FORTMAN: "...If we read Hermas to find out who or what was the Son of God, the situation is equally baffling. In one section he says that the Son of God `is the law of God, given to the whole world,' and that `the great and glorious angel Michael ... inspires the law in the hearts of believers' (Sim.8.3)..." - (Pages 40,41; Subheading: Hermas. From a now out of print book on "THE TRINITY".)