Thursday, May 31, 2012

THE STATE OF THE DEAD - ( THE APOSTLES ) - IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE SECOND CENTURY!

First compare these scriptures:

(Ecclesiastes 9:5 NWT): “...For the living are conscious that they will die; --- ( BUT AS FOR THE DEAD, THEY ARE CONSCIOUS OF NOTHING AT ALL ), --- neither do they anymore have wages, because the remembrance of them has been forgotten...”
*** Rbi8 Ecclesiastes ***
Lit., “For the living ones are knowing that they will die.” Heb., ki ha·chai·yim′ yoh·dheʽim′ shey·ya·mu′thu.
Lit., “and the dead ones, they are not knowing anything.” Heb., weham·me·thim′ ʼeh·nam′ yoh·dheʽim′ meʼu′mah.

(1st Corinthians 15:20-24 NWT): “...However, now Christ has been raised up from the dead,--- ( THE FIRST-FRUITS OF THOSE WHO - HAVE - FALLEN ASLEEP [IN DEATH] )--- [21.] For since death is through a man, resurrection of the dead is also through a man. [22.] For just as in Adam all are dying, so also in the Christ all will be made alive. [23.] But each one in his own rank: Christ the firstfruits,--- ( AFTER-WARD ) --- those who belong to the Christ --- ( DURING HIS PRESENCE ) --- [24.] Next, the end, ---( WHEN )...”

(1st Corinthians 15:20-24 Jonathan Mitchell Expanded New Testament): “...Yet each person within his (her) own class or division (or: ordered rank; place or appointed position [in line]; arranged [time] or order of succession): Christ a Firstfruit, next after that, those belonging to the Christ (or: the ones who have their source and origin in Christ; those who are [a part] of the Christ) --- ( WITHIN THE MIDST OF HIS PRESENCE )...”

(1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 NWT): “...Moreover, brothers, we do not want YOU to be ignorant concerning --- ( THOSE WHO - ARE - SLEEPING [IN DEATH] )--- that YOU may not sorrow just as the rest also do who have no hope. [14.] For if our faith is that Jesus died and rose again, so, too, those who have fallen asleep [in death] through Jesus God will bring with him. [15.] For this is what we tell YOU by Jehovah’s word, that we the living who survive --- ( TO ) --- ( THE PRESENCE OF THE LORD ) --- ( SHALL IN NO WAY - PRECEDE - THOSE WHO HAVE FALLEN ASLEEP [IN DEATH] ) --- [16.] because the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a commanding call, with an archangel’s voice and with God’s trumpet, and those who are dead in union with Christ --- ( WILL RISE FIRST ) --- [17.] --- ( AFTERWARD ) --- we the living who are surviving will, together with them, be caught away in clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and thus we shall always be with [the] Lord. [18.] Consequently keep comforting one another with these words...”

(1st Corinthians 15:6 NWT): “...After that he appeared to upward of five hundred brothers at one time, the most of whom remain to the present, --- ( BUT SOME HAVE FALLEN ASLEEP [IN DEATH] )...”

(1st Thessalonians 4:13 Moffat's New Testament): “...We would like you, brothers, to understand --- ( ABOUT THOSE WHO - ARE - ASLEEP IN DEATH ). You must not grieve for them, like the rest of men who have no hope...”

(John 11:11 NWT): “...He said these things, and after this he said to them: “Laz′a·rus our friend --- ( HAS GONE TO REST ), --- but I am journeying there --- ( TO AWAKEN HIM FROM SLEEP ) --- [12.] Therefore the disciples said to him: “Lord, if he has gone to rest, he will get well.” [13.] Jesus had spoken, however, about his death. ( But they imagined ) he was speaking about taking rest in sleep. [14.] At that time, --- ( THEREFORE, JESUS SAID TO THEM OUTSPOKENLY: “LAZ′A·RUS HAS DIED )...”

(1st Thessalonians 4:13 KNOX): “...Make no mistake, brethren, about those --- ( WHO HAVE GONE TO THEIR REST ); --- you are not to lament over them, as the rest of the world does, with no hope to live by...”

(1st Thessalonians 4:15 ISV): “...For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain --- ( UNTIL ) --- the coming of the Lord --- ( WILL BY NO MEANS - PRECEDE - THOSE WHO HAVE DIED )...”

These must be kept in mind when reading the following:

POLYCRATES OF EPHESUS (circa. 130-200 C.E.):

GREEK TEXT: “...Kαὶ γὰρ κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν μεγάλα στοιχεῖα κεκοίμηται· ἅτινα ἀναστήσεται τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου, ἐν ᾗ ἔρχεται μετὰ δόξης ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἀναζητήσει πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους, Φίλιππον τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων, ὃς κεκοίμηται ἐν Ἱεραπόλει καὶ δύο θυγατέρες αὐτοῦ γεγηρακυῖαι παρθένοι καὶ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτοῦ θυγάτηρ ἐν ἁγίῳ πνεύματι πολιτευσαμένη ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἀναπαύεται· ἔτι δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννης, ὁ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ κυρίου ἀναπεσών, ὃς ἐγενήθη ἱερεὺς τὸ πέταλον πεφορεκὼς καὶ μάρτυς καὶ διδάσκαλος, οὗτος ἐν Ἐφέσῳ κεκοίμηται. Ταῦτα καὶ περὶ τῆς τῶνδε τελευτῆς...” - (Book 3, ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ Γ´ Chapter 31, ΛΑ. Περὶ τῆς Ἰωάννου καὶ Φιλίππου τελευτῆς. “Eusebius Caesariensis - Historia ecclesiastica,” or “ΕΥΣΕΒΙΟΥ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ, ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΣΤΙΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ,” MPG.)

POLYCRATES OF EPHESUS (circa. 130-200 C.E.): “...For in Asia also great lights HAVE ( FALLEN ASLEEP ), WHICH SHALL ( RISE AGAIN ) --- ON --- THE LAST DAY, --- AT --- THE COMING OF THE LORD, WHEN HE SHALL COME WITH GLORY FROM HEAVEN AND SHALL SEEK OUT ALL THE SAINTS. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who ( sleeps ) in Hierapolis, and his two aged virgin daughters, and another daughter who lived ( in ) the Holy Spirit and ( now rests ) at Ephesus; and moreover John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and being a priest wore the sacerdotal plate. ( HE ALSO SLEEPS ) AT EPHESUS. [4.] SO MUCH CONCERNING --- ( THEIR DEATH )...” - (Book 3, Chapter 31, Sections 1-6, The Death of John and Philip. Eusebius. Church History, Translated by Arthur Cushman McGiffert. Excerpted from Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series Two, Volume 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. American Edition, 1890. Online Edition Copyright © 2004 by K. Knight)

POLYCRATES OF EPHESUS (circa. 130-200 C.E.): “...For in Asia also great luminaries ( HAVE FALLEN ASLEEP, WHO WILL RISE AGAIN --- ON --- THE LAST DAY --- OF --- THE ADVENT OF THE LORD,  WHEN HE SHALL COME WITH GLORY FROM HEAVEN AND SHALL SEARCH OUT ALL THE SAINTS ) including Philip{4} of the twelve Apostles, who sleeps at Hierapolis{5} with his two daughters who grew old as virgins and another daughter who lived in the Holy Spirit and rests at Ephesus. And there is also John,{6} who leaned upon the bosom of the Lord, who was a priest wearing the mitre,{7} and a martyr and a teacher, AND HE SLEEPS AT EPHESUS.{8} SO MUCH CONCERNING THEIR DEATHS...” - (Book 3, Chapter 31, Sections 1-6, The Fathers Of The Church A New Translation Eusebius Pamphili Ecclesiastical History Volume 19 Books 1-5 Translated by Roy J. Deferrari, THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA PRESS, Washington, D, C. 20017, NIHIL OBSTAT: JOHN M. A. FEARNS, ST.D., Censor Librorum, IMPRIMATUR: FRANCIS CARDINAL SPELLMAN, Archbishop of New York April 20, 1953.)
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Polycrates probably confuses Philip the Apostle and Philip the
Deacon here, and Eusebius does not seem to notice it. They were clearly two different men, as is evident from Acts 6.2-5; 8.14-17; and 29.8. It seems fairly certain that the deacon and not the Apostle was buried at Hierapolis.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: In Proconsular Asia, five miles north of Laodicea; cf. Col. 4.13. We can see extensive ruins of the city today, whose site is occupied by the modern village of Pambouk Kelessi.
[FOOTNOTE 6]: John 13.25; 21.20.
[FOOTNOTE 7]: The Greek word is petalon, used in the Septaguint technically for the 'plate' or 'diadem' of the High Priest; cf. Exod. 28. Its meaning here is uncertain.
[FOOTNOTE 8]: Cf. Exod. 28.32-34; Lev. 8.9; Matt. 18.18. On John's activity at Ephesus and his death there, cf. above, 3.1.

...For, even, [those] great stars from the [district of] Asia have fallen asleep. These ones shall indeed arise during the final part of days, the Lord's royal presence, when he comes in [and] with [great] glory from out of heaven, even to make an inspection of all of the holy ones...”

 Gk., ( τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ) “...the final part of the days...”

Gk., ( τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου ) “...the Presence of the Lord...”

Gk., ( ᾗ ἔρχεται μετὰ δόξης ) “...when he comes with glory...”

GREEK TEXT: “...ἡμεῖς οὖν ἀρᾳδιούργητον ἄγομεν τὴν ἡμέραν, μήτε προστιθέντες μήτε ἀφαιρούμενοι. καὶ γὰρ κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν μεγάλα στοιχεῖα κεκοίμηται· ἅτινα ἀναστήσεται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου, ἐν ᾗ ἔρχεται μετὰ δόξης ἐξ οὐρανῶν καὶ ἀναζητήσει πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους, Φίλιππον τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων, ὃς κεκοίμηται ἐν Ἱεραπόλει καὶ δύο θυγατέρες αὐτοῦ γεγηρακυῖαι παρθένοι καὶ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτοῦ θυγάτηρ ἐν ἁγίῳ πνεύματι πολιτευσαμένη ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἀναπαύεται· ἔτι δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννης ὁ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ κυρίου ἀναπεσών, ὃς ἐγενήθη ἱερεὺς τὸ πέταλον πεφορεκὼς καὶ μάρτυς καὶ διδάσκαλος· οὗτος ἐν Ἐφέσῳ κεκοίμηται, ἔτι δὲ καὶ Πολύκαρπος ἐν Σμύρνῃ, καὶ ἐπίσκοπος καὶ μάρτυς· καὶ Θρασέας, καὶ ἐπίσκοπος καὶ μάρτυς ἀπὸ Εὐμενείας, ὃς ἐν Σμύρνῃ κεκοίμηται. τί δὲ δεῖ λέγειν Σάγαριν ἐπίσκοπον καὶ μάρτυρα, ὃς ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ κεκοίμηται, ἔτι δὲ καὶ Παπίριον τὸν μακάριον καὶ Μελίτωνα τὸν εὐνοῦχον, τὸν ἐν ἁγίῳ πνεύματι πάντα πολιτευσάμενον, ὃς κεῖται ἐν Σάρδεσιν περιμένων τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν οὐρανῶν ἐπισκοπὴν ἐν ᾗ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστήσεται; οὗτοι πάντες ἐτήρησαν τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτης τοῦ πάσχα κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, μηδὲν παρεκβαίνοντες, ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὸν κανόνα τῆς πίστεως ἀκολουθοῦντες...” - (Book 5, ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ Ε´ Chapter 24, ΚΔ Περὶ τῆς κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν διαφωνίας. Sections 2-6(A), “Eusebius Caesariensis - Historia ecclesiastica,” or “ΕΥΣΕΒΙΟΥ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ, ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΣΤΙΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ,” MPG.)

POLYCRATES OF EPHESUS (circa. 130-200 C.E.): “...We [2.] observe the exact day; neither adding, nor taking away. For in Asia also great lights HAVE FALLEN ASLEEP, WHICH SHALL RISE AGAIN ( ON ) THE DAY OF THE LORD'S COMING, ( WHEN ) HE SHALL COME WITH GLORY FROM HEAVEN, AND SHALL SEEK OUT ALL THE SAINTS. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who fell asleep in Hierapolis; and his two aged virgin daughters, and another daughter, who lived ( in ) the Holy Spirit and now rests at Ephesus; and, moreover, John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and, being a priest, wore the sacerdotal plate. [3.] He fell asleep at Ephesus. [4.] And Polycarp in Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr; and Thraseas, bishop and martyr from Eumenia, who fell asleep in Smyrna. [5.] Why need I mention the bishop and martyr Sagaris who fell asleep in Laodicea, or the blessed Papirius, or Melito, the Eunuch who lived altogether ( in ) the Holy Spirit, and ( WHO LIES IN ) SARDIS, ( AWAITING ) THE EPISCOPATE FROM HEAVEN, ( WHEN ) HE SHALL RISE FROM THE DEAD? [6.] All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith...” - (Book 5, Chapter 24, Sections 2-6(A), Eusebius. Church History, Translated by Arthur Cushman McGiffert. Excerpted from Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series Two, Volume 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. American Edition, 1890.)

POLYCRATES OF EPHESUS (circa. 130-200 C.E.): “...We, therefore, keep the precise day, neither adding nor taking away, for even in Asia great luminaries{2} HAVE FALLEN ASLEEP, WHICH SHALL RISE --- ON --- THE DAY OF THE COMING OF THE LORD, WHEN HE COMES WITH GLORY FROM HEAVEN AND SHALL SEEK OUT{3} ALL THE SAINTS, Philip of the twelve Apostles, who have been sleeping in Hieropolis, and two of his daughters who had grown old as virgins, and another daughter of his who lived in the Holy Spirit and rests at Ephesus. Furthermore, there is also John, who leaned on the breast of the Lord,{4} and was a priest wearing the breastplate, and a martyr, and teacher.{5} This one rests at Ephesus. Then there is also Polycarp{6} in Smyrna, both bishop and martyr; and there is Thraseas,{7} both bishop and martyr, from Eumenaea, who rests at Smyrna. And why need I mention Sagaris,{8} bishop and martyr, who rests in Smyrna, and also Papirius{9} the blessed and Melito{10} the eunuch, who lived entirely in the Holy Spirit and lies in Sardis ( AWAITING ) THE VISITATION FROM HEAVEN WHEN HE WILL RISE FROM THE DEAD? All these observed the fourteenth day of the Passover according to the Gospel, never deviating, but following according to the rule of the faith...” - (Book 5, Chapter 24, Sections 2-6(A), The Fathers Of The Church A New Translation Eusebius Pamphili Ecclesiastical History Volume 19 Books 1-5 Translated by Roy J. Deferrari, THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA PRESS, Washington, D, C. 20017, NIHIL OBSTAT: JOHN M. A. FEARNS, ST.D., Censor Librorum, IMPRIMATUR: FRANCIS CARDINAL SPELLMAN, Archbishop of New York April 20, 1953.)
[FOOTNOTE 2]: stoicheia, in late Greek, often means 'the planets/
[FOOTNOTE 3]: Some important manuscripts read anastesei (shall raise up) which may
be the right meaning.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Cf. John 21.20; 13.23.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: Cf. Exod. 28.32ff.; 36.38E
[FOOTNOTE 6]: Cf. above, 4.14.
[FOOTNOTE 7]: All evidence points to the reliability of the statement that he was
Bishop of Eumenaea (in the southern part of Phrygia) and a martyr
in the full sense. Nothing more is known about him*
[FOOTNOTE 8]: Cf. above, 4.26.
[FOOTNOTE 9]: Nothing is known about him. Polycrates calls him neither a bishop nor
a martyr, but Simeon Metaphrastes, an unreliable authority, says that
Papirius was a successor of Polycarp as Bishop of Smyrna.
[FOOTNOTE 10]: Cf. above, 4.26.

...waiting for the [Great] Overseer from heaven, in that future time which he shall rise up out of [the] dead...”

Gk., ( περιμένων ) = particle, singular, ( future ), active, masculine, nominative

Gk., ( περιμένων ) “...is waiting for that future time...”

Gk., ( ἐν ᾗ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστήσεται ) “...during which he rises from out of [the] dead...”

NOTE: Eusebius of Caesarea, (from whom the following is taken), wrote his history over a 150 years after Polycrates time, and definitely believed in the immortality of the human soul. By his time, Christian belief had indeed been corrupted, and was still in the process of changing at the time of his writing, i.e., the Council of Nicea etc. But it is this valuable document from the earliest strata of Christian belief, which is quoted by Eusebius, that is of the most value to us.

The full quotations with Eusebius commentary surrounding it:
 
GREEK TEXT: “...τῶν δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς Ἀσίας ἐπισκόπων τὸ πάλαι πρότερον αὐτοῖς παραδοθὲν διαφυλάττειν ἔθος χρῆναι διισχυριζομένων ἡγεῖτο Πολυκράτης· ὃς καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν ᾗ πρὸς Βίκτορα καὶ τὴν Ῥωμαίων ἐκκλησίαν διετυπώσατο γραφῇ τὴν εἰς αὐτὸν ἐλθοῦσαν παράδοσιν ἐκτίθεται διὰ τούτων· «ἡμεῖς οὖν ἀρᾳδιούργητον ἄγομεν τὴν ἡμέραν, μήτε προστιθέντες μήτε ἀφαιρούμενοι. καὶ γὰρ κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν μεγάλα στοιχεῖα κεκοίμηται· ἅτινα ἀναστήσεται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου, ἐν ᾗ ἔρχεται μετὰ δόξης ἐξ οὐρανῶν καὶ ἀναζητήσει πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους, Φίλιππον τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων, ὃς κεκοίμηται ἐν Ἱεραπόλει καὶ δύο θυγατέρες αὐτοῦ γεγηρακυῖαι παρθένοι καὶ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτοῦ θυγάτηρ ἐν ἁγίῳ πνεύματι πολιτευσαμένη ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἀναπαύεται· ἔτι δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννης ὁ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ κυρίου ἀναπεσών, ὃς ἐγενήθη ἱερεὺς τὸ πέταλον πεφορεκὼς καὶ μάρτυς καὶ διδάσκαλος· οὗτος ἐν Ἐφέσῳ κεκοίμηται, ἔτι δὲ καὶ Πολύκαρπος ἐν Σμύρνῃ, καὶ ἐπίσκοπος καὶ μάρτυς· καὶ Θρασέας, καὶ ἐπίσκοπος καὶ μάρτυς ἀπὸ Εὐμενείας, ὃς ἐν Σμύρνῃ κεκοίμηται. τί δὲ δεῖ λέγειν Σάγαριν ἐπίσκοπον καὶ μάρτυρα, ὃς ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ κεκοίμηται, ἔτι δὲ καὶ Παπίριον τὸν μακάριον καὶ Μελίτωνα τὸν εὐνοῦχον, τὸν ἐν ἁγίῳ πνεύματι πάντα πολιτευσάμενον, ὃς κεῖται ἐν Σάρδεσιν περιμένων τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν οὐρανῶν ἐπισκοπὴν ἐν ᾗ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστήσεται;  οὗτοι πάντες ἐτήρησαν τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτης τοῦ πάσχα κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, μηδὲν παρεκβαίνοντες, ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὸν κανόνα τῆς πίστεως ἀκολουθοῦντες...” - (Book 5, ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ Ε´ Chapter 24, ΚΔ Περὶ τῆς κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν διαφωνίας. “Eusebius Caesariensis - Historia ecclesiastica,” or “ΕΥΣΕΒΙΟΥ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ, ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΣΤΙΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ,” MPG.)

EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (circa. 260-340 C.E. ): “...But [1.] the bishops of Asia, led by Polycrates, decided to hold to the old custom handed down to them. He himself, in a letter which he addressed to Victor and the church of Rome, set forth in the following words the tradition which had come down to him: [2.] We observe the exact day; neither adding, nor taking away. For in Asia also great lights have fallen asleep, which shall rise again on the day of the Lord's coming, when he shall come with glory from heaven, and shall seek out all the saints. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who fell asleep in Hierapolis; and his two aged virgin daughters, and another daughter, who lived in the Holy Spirit and now rests at Ephesus; and, moreover, John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and, being a priest, wore the sacerdotal plate. [3.] He fell asleep at Ephesus. [4.] And Polycarp in Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr; and Thraseas, bishop and martyr from Eumenia, who fell asleep in Smyrna. [5.] Why need I mention the bishop and martyr Sagaris who fell asleep in Laodicea, or the blessed Papirius, or Melito, the Eunuch who lived altogether in the Holy Spirit, and who lies in Sardis, awaiting the episcopate from heaven, when he shall rise from the dead? [6.] All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith...” - (Book 5, Chapter 24, Sections 1-6(A), Eusebius. Church History, Translated by Arthur Cushman McGiffert. Excerpted from Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series Two, Volume 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. American Edition, 1890.)

EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (circa. 260-340 C.E. ): “...Now, the time and the manner of the death of Paul and of Peter, and in addition the place of the disposition of their corpses after their departure from this life, we have already shown.{1} The date of the death of John has also already been mentioned,{2} and the disposition of his body is indicated by a [Page 189] letter of Polycrates{3} (he was Bishop of the diocese of Ephesus), on writing which to Victor, Bishop of Rome, he makes mention both of John and Philip the Apostle, and the latter's daughters as follows : For in Asia also great luminaries have fallen asleep, who will rise again on the last day of the advent of the Lord, when He shall come with glory from heaven and shall search out all the saints including Philip{4} of the twelve Apostles, who sleeps at Hierapolis{5} with his two daughters who grew old as virgins and another daughter who lived in the Holy Spirit and rests at Ephesus. And there is also John,{6} who leaned upon the bosom of the Lord, who was a priest wearing the mitre,{7} and a martyr and a teacher, and he sleeps at Ephesus.{8} So much concerning their deaths. And in the dialogue of Gaius, which we mentioned a little before,{9} Proclus,{10} against whom he composed the disputation, thus speaks about the death of Philip and his daughters, agreeing{11} [Page 190] with what has already been set forth: 'After him the four daughters of Philip, prophetesses, were at Hierapolis in Asia. Their grave is there, and likewise that of their father.' So much does he say. And Luke, in the Acts of the Apostles, mentions the daughters of Philip as then living in Caesarea of Judaea together with their father and as having been deemed worthy of the gift of prophecy, using exactly the following words: 'We came into Caesarea, and having entered the house of Philip who was one of the seven, we remained with him. He had four virgin daughters who were prophetesses.{12} Thus, after having described the matters that have come to our knowledge about the Apostles and apostolic times and concerning the sacred writings which they have left us, including those which are disputed, yet are read publicly by many in a great many churches, and those entirely spurious works at variance with apostolic orthodoxy, let us now proceed with the narrative in order...” - (Book 3, Chapter 31, Sections 1-6, The Fathers Of The Church A New Translation Eusebius Pamphili Ecclesiastical History Volume 19 Books 1-5 Translated by Roy J. Deferrari, THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA PRESS, Washington, D, C. 20017, NIHIL OBSTAT: JOHN M. A. FEARNS, ST.D., Censor Librorum, IMPRIMATUR: FRANCIS CARDINAL SPELLMAN, Archbishop of New York April 20, 1953.)
[FOOTNOTE 1]: Cf. above, 2.25.
[FOOTNOTE 2]: Cf. above, 3.23. Irenaeus, Haer. 2.22.5, is quoted here to show that
John lived until the reign of Trajan.
[FOOTNOTE 3]: On Polycrates and Victor, cf. below, 5.22. This Epistle is the only extant work of Polycrates. This passage, but with much more of the context, is quoted below, 5.24.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Polycrates probably confuses Philip the Apostle and Philip the
Deacon here, and Eusebius does not seem to notice it. They were clearly two different men, as is evident from Acts 6.2-5; 8.14-17; and 29.8. It seems fairly certain that the deacon and not the Apostle was buried at Hierapolis.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: In Proconsular Asia, five miles north of Laodicea; cf. Col. 4.13. We can see extensive ruins of the city today, whose site is occupied by the modern village of Pambouk Kelessi.
[FOOTNOTE 6]: John 13.25; 21.20.
[FOOTNOTE 7]: The Greek word is petalon, used in the Septaguint technically for the 'plate' or 'diadem' of the High Priest; cf. Exod. 28. Its meaning here is uncertain.
[FOOTNOTE 8]: Cf. Exod. 28.32-34; Lev. 8.9; Matt. 18.18. On John's activity at Ephesus and his death there, cf. above, 3.1.
[FOOTNOTE 9]: Cf. above, 2.25 and 3.28.
[FOOTNOTE 10]: A Montanist leader; cf. above, 2.25 .
[FOOTNOTE 11]: The two accounts, as a matter of fact, differ in details, and it is difficult to understand why Eusebius passes over them. Perhaps he considered it his duty as a historian to give the two accounts accurately side by side and thus to permit the reader to draw his own conclusion. He certainly was not trying to deceive.
[FOOTNOTE 12]: Cf. Acts 21 8,9. Eusebius evidently considers Philip the Apostle and
Philip the Deacon identical.

GREEK TEXT: “...Παύλου μὲν οὖν καὶ Πέτρου τῆς τελευτῆς ὅ τε χρόνος καὶ ὁ τρόπος καὶ πρὸς ἔτι τῆς μετὰ τὴν ἀπαλλαγὴν τοῦ βίου τῶν σκηνωμάτων αὐτῶν καταθέσεως ὁ χῶρος ἤδη πρότερον ἡμῖν δεδήλωται· τοῦ δὲ Ἰωάννου τὰ μὲν τοῦ χρόνου ἤδη πως εἴρηται, τὸ δέ γε τοῦ σκηνώματος αὐτοῦ χωρίον ἐξ ἐπιστολῆς Πολυκράτους (τῆς δ᾿ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ παροικίας ἐπίσκοπος οὗτος ἦν) ἐπιδείκνυνται, ἣν Οὐίκτορι Ῥωμαίων ἐπισκόπῳ γράφων, ὁμοῦ τε αὐτοῦ καὶ Φιλίππου μνημονεύει τοῦ ἀποστόλου τῶν τε τούτου θυγατέρων ὧδέ πως· «καὶ γὰρ κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν μεγάλα στοιχεῖα κεκοίμηται· ἅτινα ἀναστήσεται τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου, ἐν ᾗ ἔρχεται μετὰ δόξης ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἀναζητήσει πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους, Φίλιππον τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων, ὃς κεκοίμηται ἐν Ἱεραπόλει καὶ δύο θυγατέρες αὐτοῦ γεγηρακυῖαι παρθένοι καὶ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτοῦ θυγάτηρ ἐν ἁγίῳ πνεύματι πολιτευσαμένη ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἀναπαύεται· ἔτι δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννης, ὁ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ κυρίου ἀναπεσών, ὃς ἐγενήθη ἱερεὺς τὸ πέταλον πεφορεκὼς καὶ μάρτυς καὶ διδάσκαλος, οὗτος ἐν Ἐφέσῳ κεκοίμηται». ταῦτα καὶ περὶ τῆς τῶνδε τελευτῆς· καὶ ἐν τῷ Γαΐου δέ, οὗ μικρῷ πρόσθεν ἐμνήσθημεν, διαλόγῳ Πρόκλος, πρὸς ὃν ἐποιεῖτο τὴν ζήτησιν, περὶ τῆς Φιλίππου καὶ τῶν θυγατέρων αὐτοῦ τελευτῆς, συνᾴδων τοῖς ἐκτεθεῖσιν, οὕτω φησίν· «μετὰ τοῦτον προφήτιδες τέσσαρες αἱ Φιλίππου γεγένηνται ἐν Ἱεραπόλει τῇ κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν· ὁ τάφος αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἐκεῖ καὶ ὁ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῶν». ταῦτα μὲν οὗτος· ὁ δὲ Λουκᾶς ἐν ταῖς Πράξεσιν τῶν ἀποστόλων τῶν Φιλίππου θυγατέρων ἐν Καισαρείᾳ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἅμα τῷ πατρὶ τότε διατριβουσῶν προφητικοῦ τε χαρίσματος ἠξιωμένων μνημονεύει, κατὰ λέξιν ὧδέ πως λέγων· «ἤλθομεν εἰς Καισάρειαν, καὶ εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὸν οἶκον Φιλίππου τοῦ εὐαγγελιστοῦ, ὄντος ἐκ τῶν ἑπτά, ἐμείναμεν παρ᾿ αὐτῷ. τούτῳ δὲ ἦσαν παρθένοι θυγατέρες τέσσαρες προφητεύουσαι.» τὰ μὲν οὖν εἰς ἡμετέραν ἐλθόντα γνῶσιν περί τε τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ τῶν ἀποστολικῶν χρόνων ὧν τε καταλελοίπασιν ἡμῖν ἱερῶν γραμμάτων καὶ τῶν ἀντιλεγομένων μέν, ὅμως δ᾿ ἐν πλείσταις ἐκκλησίαις παρὰ πολλοῖς δεδημοσιευμένων τῶν τε παντελῶς νόθων καὶ τῆς ἀποστολικῆς ὀρθοδοξίας ἀλλοτρίων ἐν τούτοις διειληφότες, ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν ἑξῆς προΐωμεν ἱστορίαν...” - (Book 3, ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ Γ´ Chapter 31, ΛΑ. Περὶ τῆς Ἰωάννου καὶ Φιλίππου τελευτῆς. “Eusebius Caesariensis - Historia ecclesiastica,” or “ΕΥΣΕΒΙΟΥ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ, ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΣΤΙΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ,” MPG.)

EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (circa. 260-340 C.E. ): “...The [1.] time and the manner of the death of Paul and Peter as well as their burial places, have been already shown by us. [2.] The time of John's death has also been given in a general way, but his burial place is indicated by an epistle of Polycrates (who was bishop of the parish of Ephesus), addressed to Victor, bishop of Rome. In this epistle he mentions him together with the apostle Philip and his daughters in the following words: [3.] For in Asia also great lights have fallen asleep, which shall rise again on the last day, at the coming of the Lord, when he shall come with glory from heaven and shall seek out all the saints. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who sleeps in Hierapolis, and his two aged virgin daughters, and another daughter who lived in the Holy Spirit and now rests at Ephesus; and moreover John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and being a priest wore the sacerdotal plate. He also sleeps at Ephesus. [4.] So much concerning their death. And in the Dialogue of Caius which we mentioned a little above, Proclus, against whom he directed his disputation, in agreement with what has been quoted, speaks thus concerning the death of Philip and his daughters: After him there were four prophetesses, the daughters of Philip, at Hierapolis in Asia. Their tomb is there and the tomb of their father. Such is his statement. [5.] But Luke, in the Acts of the Apostles, mentions the daughters of Philip who were at that time at Cæsarea in Judea with their father, and were honored with the gift of prophecy. His words are as follows: We came unto Cæsarea; and entering into the house of Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven, we abode with him. Now this man had four daughters, virgins, which did prophesy. [6.] We have thus set forth in these pages what has come to our knowledge concerning the apostles themselves and the apostolic age, and concerning the sacred writings which they have left us, as well as concerning those which are disputed, but nevertheless have been publicly used by many in a great number of churches, and moreover, concerning those that are altogether rejected and are out of harmony with apostolic orthodoxy. Having done this, let us now proceed with our history...” - (Book 3, Chapter 31, Sections 1-6, The Death of John and Philip. Eusebius. Church History, Translated by Arthur Cushman McGiffert. Excerpted from Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series Two, Volume 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. American Edition, 1890. Online Edition Copyright © 2004 by K. Knight)

EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (circa. 260-340 C.E. ): “...To these belonged the one definition which has just been indicated, but Polycrates led the bishops of Asia in confidently proclaiming that they must preserve the custom handed down to them from of old. Polycrates himself, in a writing which he composed to Victor and the Church of Rome, describes the tradition which had come down to him, in these words:{1} [Page 335] 'We, therefore, keep the precise day, neither adding nor taking away, for even in Asia great luminaries{2} have fallen asleep, which shall rise on the day of the coming of the Lord, when he comes with glory from heaven and shall seek out{3} all the saints, Philip of the twelve Apostles, who have been sleeping in Hieropolis, and two of his daughters who had grown old as virgins, and another daughter of his who lived in the Holy Spirit and rests at Ephesus. Furthermore, there is also John, who leaned on the breast of the Lord,{4} and was a priest wearing the breastplate, and a martyr, and teacher.{5} This one rests at Ephesus. Then there is also Polycarp{6} in Smyrna, both bishop and martyr; and there is Thraseas,{7} both bishop and martyr, from Eumenaea, who rests at Smyrna. And why need I mention Sagaris,{8} bishop and martyr, who rests in Smyrna, and also Papirius{9} the blessed and Melito{10} the eunuch, who lived entirely in the Holy Spirit and lies in Sardis awaiting the visitation from heaven when he will rise from the dead? All these observed the fourteenth day of the Passover according to the Gospel, never deviating, but following according to the rule of the faith. And I also, Polycrates, do so, the least of you all, according to the tradition o my kinsmen, some of whom I have followed. Seven of my kinsmen were bishops, and I am the eighth. And my [Page 336] kinsmen always observed the day when the people{11} put away the leaven. So, my brethren, having lived sixty-five years in the Lord and having associated with the brethren from the entire world and having read all holy Scripture{12} I am not frightened at what is threatened us, for those greater than I have said, "We ought to obey God rather than men.{13}...” - (Book 5, Chapter 24, Sections 2-6(A), The Fathers Of The Church A New Translation Eusebius Pamphili Ecclesiastical History Volume 19 Books 1-5 Translated by Roy J. Deferrari, THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA PRESS, Washington, D, C. 20017, NIHIL OBSTAT: JOHN M. A. FEARNS, ST.D., Censor Librorum, IMPRIMATUR: FRANCIS CARDINAL SPELLMAN, Archbishop of New York April 20, 1953.)
[FOOTNOTE 1]: A portion of this quotation from Polycrates' epistle is given above, 3.31.
[FOOTNOTE 2]: stoicheia, in late Greek, often means 'the planets.'
[FOOTNOTE 3]: Some important manuscripts read anastesei (shall raise up) which may
be the right meaning.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Cf. John 21.20; 13.23.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: Cf. Exod. 28.32ff.; 36.38E
[FOOTNOTE 6]: Cf. above, 4.14.
[FOOTNOTE 7]: All evidence points to the reliability of the statement that he was
Bishop of Eumenaea (in the southern part of Phrygia) and a martyr
in the full sense. Nothing more is known about him*
[FOOTNOTE 8]: Cf. above, 4.26.
[FOOTNOTE 9]: Nothing is known about him. Polycrates calls him neither a bishop nor
a martyr, but Simeon Metaphrastes, an unreliable authority, says that
Papirius was a successor of Polycarp as Bishop of Smyrna.
[FOOTNOTE 10]: Cf. above, 4.26.
[FOOTNOTE 11]: I.e., the Jews.
[FOOTNOTE 12]: Cf. Phil. 1.28.

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

THE TRI{3}NITARIAN MONSTER THAT NEVER WENT AWAY!

Don't you just love that title:

...ON – NOT – THREE – GOD(S)...”

It makes me laugh every time I see it!

GREEK TEXT: “...τὸ δὲ λεγόμενον παρὰ σοῦ τοιοῦτόν ἐστιν· Πέτρος καὶ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωάννης, ἐν μιᾷ ὄντες τῇ ἀνθρωπότητι, τρεῖς ἄνθρωποι λέγονται· καὶ οὐδὲν ἄτοπον τοὺς συνημμένους κατὰ τὴν φύσιν, εἰ πλείους εἶεν, ἐκ τοῦ τῆς φύσεως ὀνόματος πληθυντικῶς ἀριθμεῖσθαι. εἰ οὖν ἐκεῖ τοῦτο δίδωσιν ἡ συνήθεια καὶ ὁ ἀπαγορεύων οὐκ ἔστι δύο λέγειν τοὺς δύο καὶ τρεῖς τοὺς ὑπὲρ δύο, πῶς, ἐπὶ τῶν μυστικῶν δογμάτων τὰς τρεῖς ὑποστάσεις ὁμολογοῦντες καὶ οὐδεμίαν ἐπ' αὐτῶν τὴν κατὰ φύσιν διαφορὰν ἐννοοῦντες, μαχόμεθα τρόπον τινὰ τῇ ὁμολογίᾳ, μίαν μὲν τὴν θεότητα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος λέγοντες, τρεῖς δὲ θεοὺς λέγειν ἀπαγορεύοντες; Ὁ μὲν οὖν λόγος, καθὰ προέφην, πολὺ τὸ δυσμεταχεί ριστον ἔχει· ἡμεῖς δέ, εἰ μέν τι τοιοῦτον εὕροιμεν, δι' οὗ τὸ ἀμφίβολον τῆς διανοίας ἡμῶν ἐρεισθήσεται, μηκέτι πρὸς τὸ διλήμματον τῆς ἀτοπίας ἐπιδιστάζον καὶ κραδαινόμενον, [3,1.39] εὖ ἂν ἔχοι· εἰ δὲ καὶ ἀτονώτερος ἐλεγχθείη τοῦ προβλήματος ὁ ἡμέτερος λόγος, τὴν μὲν παράδοσιν ἣν παρὰ τῶν πατέρων διεδεξάμεθα φυλάξομεν εἰς ἀεὶ βεβαίαν τε καὶ ἀκίνητον, τὸν δὲ συνήγορον τῆς πίστεως λόγον παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου ζητήσομεν· ὃς εἰ μὲν εὑρεθείη παρά τινος τῶν ἐχόντων τὴν χάριν, εὐχαριστήσομεν τῷ δεδωκότι τὴν χάριν· εἰ δὲ μή, οὐδὲν ἧττον ἐπὶ τῶν ἐγνωσμένων τὴν πίστιν ἀμετάθετον ἕξομεν...” - (Paragraph 3, Section 3:1:38-39; Latin title: “Ad Ablabium Quod Non Sint Tres Dei,” Greek title: “ΓΡΗΓΟΡΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΣΚΟΠΟΥ ΝΥΣΣΗΣ ΠΕΡΙ ΤΟΥ ΜΗ ΟΙΕΣΘΑΙ ΛΕΓΕΙΝ ΤΡΕΙΣ ΘΕΟΥΣ ΠΡΟΣ ΑΒΛΑΒΙΟΝ,” MPG.)

GREGORY OF NYSSA (circa. 335-384 C.E.): “...The argument which ( you ) state is something like this:—Peter, James, and John, being in one human nature, are called three men: and there is no absurdity in describing those who are united in nature, if they are more than one, by the plural number of the name derived from their nature. If, then, in the above case, custom admits this, and no one forbids ( us ) to speak of those who are two as two, or those who are more than two as three, how is it that in the case of ( our ) statements of the mysteries of the Faith, though confessing the Three Persons, and acknowledging no difference of nature between them, ( WE ) ARE IN SOME SENSE AT VARIANCE WITH ( OUR ) CONFESSION, WHEN ( WE ) SAY THAT THE GODHEAD OF THE FATHER AND OF THE SON AND OF THE HOLY GHOST IS ONE, AND YET FORBID MEN TO SAY “THERE ARE THREE GODS”? The question is, as ( I ) said, very difficult to deal with: yet, if ( we ) should be able to find anything that may give support to the uncertainty of ( our ) mind, SO THAT IT MAY NO LONGER TOTTER AND WAVER IN THIS MONSTROUS DILEMMA, it would be well: on the other hand, even - if - ( our ) reasoning be found unequal to the problem, ( we ) --- must keep for ever, firm and unmoved, --- THE TRADITION --- which ( we ) received by succession from the fathers, and seek from the Lord the reason which is the advocate of ( our ) faith: and if this be found by any of those endowed with grace, ( we ) must give thanks to Him who bestowed the grace; --- but if not, --- ( we ) shall none the less, on those points which have been determined, hold ( our ) faith unchangeably...” - (Paragraph 3, in “ON NOT THREE GODS.” Letter “TO ABLABIUS,” Translated by H.A. Wilson. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 5. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1893.) 

And this:

...MONSTROUS DILEMMA...”

Has never gone away!

P.S. In no way do I find his arguments persuasive, nor do I believe in the conterfiet doctrine of the Tri{3}nity.