Saturday, April 3, 2010

Part 1 - Isa 9:6 LXX Variant Readings According to Eusebius of Ceasarea

VARIANT LXX TEXTS OF (ISAIAH 9:6) IN THE TIME OF EUSEBIUS

Alternative readings to “mighty god”.



MODERN RECEIVED LXX TEXT:

[Modern Text of the Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics]: “...[Isaiah 9:6] ὅτι παιδίον ἐγεννήθη ἡμῖν υἱὸς καὶ ἐδόθη ἡμῖν οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐγενήθη ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ καὶ καλεῖται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος ἐγὼ γὰρ ἄξω εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας εἰρήνην καὶ ὑγίειαν αὐτῷ [Isaiah 9:7] μεγάλη ἡ ἀρχὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν ὅριον ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον δαυιδ καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ κατορθῶσαι αὐτὴν καὶ ἀντιλαβέσθαι αὐτῆς ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν καὶ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον ὁ ζῆλος κυρίου σαβαωθ ποιήσει ταῦτα...”


LXX VERSION'S AVAILABLE IN EUSEBIUS TIME


Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...His Name is said to be, according to the Septuagint, “Angel of Great Counsel”...”

[Quotation by Eusebius of 3rd Century B.C. LXX Greek text]: “...καὶ τούτῳ γοῦν ὄνομα εἶναι λέγεται κατὰ μὲν τοὺς ἑβδομήκοντα «μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος»,...”

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...and as some of the copies have, "Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Potentate, Prince of Peace, Father of the World to Come."...”

[Some LXX MSS (2nd - 3rd Century) Septuagint]: “...καὶ ὥς τινα τῶν ἀντιγράφων ἔχει, «θαυμαστὸς σύμβουλος, θεὸς ἰσχυρός, ἐξουσιαστής, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, πατὴρ τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος»,...”

[Some LXX MSS (2nd - 3rd Century) Eusebius Latin]: “...Et vocatur nomen ejus magni consilii angelus admirabilis consiliarius Deus fortis potentiam habens principes pacis pater futuri saeculi...”

Notice the Greekfor "mighty god" just like John 1:1 it has no definite article. It could be translated: "a strong god" with a small (g).

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...In the Hebrew, as Aquila says: "For unto us a child is born, to us a son is given, and a measure was upon his shoulders. And his name was called Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty, Powerful, Father, even Prince of Peace, and of his peace there is no end."

[(2nd - 3rd Century) Hebrew, Aquila]: 7.1.136 κατὰ δὲ τὸ Ἑβραϊκόν, ὡς μὲν Ἀκύλας φησίν· «ὅτι παιδίον ἐγεννήθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς ἐδόθη ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐγένετο μέτρον ἐπ' ὤμου αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ θαυμαστὸς σύμβουλος, ἰσχυρός, δυνατός, πατὴρ ἔτι, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν πέρας»,

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...But who can this be who, in Aquila's version and those even now current among the Hebrews, is "begotten among men, and become a child, Wonderful and Strong, Counsellor, Powerful, and Father, yea even Prince of peace, Whose peace, he says, will never end?"

[(2nd - 3rd Century) Then Current Hebrew, Aquila Greek]: 7.1.139 τίς δ' ἂν οὖν γένοιτο κατὰ μὲν τὸν Ἀκύλαν καὶ τὰς εἰσέτι νῦν φερομένας παρ' Ἑβραίοις μαρτυρίας ἐν ἀνθρώποις γεννώμενος, καὶ «παιδίον» γινόμενος, «θαυμαστὸς σύμβουλος» καὶ «ἰσχυρός», «δυνατός», καὶ «πατὴρ ἔτι», καὶ «ἄρχων εἰρήνης», ἧς εἰρήνης οὔποτέ φησιν ἔσεσθαι τέλος,

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...And as Symmachus: "For a youth is given to us, a son is given us; and his instructions shall be upon his shoulders, and his name shall be called Miraculous, Counselling, Strong, Powerful, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace, and of his (b) peace there is no end."

Symmachus LXX Greek: 7.1.137 ὡς δὲ ὁ Σύμμαχος· «νεανίας γὰρ ἐδόθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς ἐδόθη ἡμῖν. καὶ ἔσται ἡ παιδεία αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ, καὶ κληθήσεται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ παραδοξασμός, βουλευτικός, ἰσχυρός, δυνατός, πατὴρ αἰῶνος, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν πέρας».

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...or in that of Symmachus, "Miraculous, Counselling, Strong, Powerful, Eternal Father, Prince of peace, and that endless and infinite"...”

Symmachus LXX Variant Greek: “...κατὰ δὲ τὸν Σύμμαχον «παραδοξασμός, βουλευτικός, ἰσχυρός, δυνατός, πατὴρ αἰῶνος, ἄρχων εἰρήνης», καὶ ταύτης ἀπείρου καὶ ἀτελευτήτου,...”

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...or in Theodotion's "Counselling wonderfully, Strong, Powerful, Father, Prince of peace, for increasing instruction, of Whose peace there is no end."...”

Theodotion's LXX Greek: “...καὶ κατὰ Θεοδοτίωνα «θαυμαστῶς βουλεύων, ἰσχυρός, δυνάστης, πατήρ, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, τῷ πληθύνειν τὴν παιδείαν, οὗ τῆς εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔστιν πέρας»;

ENGLISH TRANS SOURCE: http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/eusebius_de_09_book7.htm

GREEK SOURCE: http://www.textexcavation.com/eusebius.html

Scroll down page to find subheading: “Available texts” down a little bit to: “Internet Archive” and click on the link “6-10” in: “DEMONSTRATION books 1-5, 6-10” for the Greek text. Turn to Pages 336/337 in scanned book.

http://www.archive.org/stream/evangelicaedemo00donagoog#page/n157/mode/1up

Compare also:

"Wonder-Counsellor, Divine Champion, Father Ever, Captain of Peace." - Byington's The Bible in Living English

"A wonder of a counsellor, a divine hero, a father for all time, a peaceful prince." - Moffatt's The Bible

"in purpose wonderful, in battle God-like...." - New English Bible

"Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty Hero, Eternal Father...." - Revised English Bible

"Great Leader, Time's Father, the Prince of Peace." - The Complete Bible in Modern English by Ferrar Fenton

"divine hero, father of spoil, prince of peace" - Isaiah 1:12 Old Testament Library-A Commentary by Otto Kaiser

"God-Hero;" - The Catholic New American Bible (1970 and 1991 revision)

"mighty hero" - Biblical Hebrew language expert Gesenius - p. 45, Gesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon.


Aleppo Codex Isaiah Chapter 9:

Jesaja Kapitel 8-9, Tanach via Aleppo Codex

Bilder: Älteste bekannte Darstellung der Jungfrau Maria, Katakomben von Priscilla, Rom, spätes 2. Jahrhundert; Aleppo Codex


To summarize:

Eusebius who had access to Origen's Hexapala gives these readings for the Heb., ( אֵ֣ל גִּבֹּ֔ור ) el gibbor in the LXX Versions of his time:

1. μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος = Original LXX
2. θεὸς ἰσχυρός = Some Copies LXX = Minority
3. ἰσχυρός, δυνατός = Aquila
4. ἰσχυρός, δυνατός = Authorised Heb., LXX
5. ἰσχυρός, δυνατός = Symmachus
6. ἰσχυρός, δυνάστης = Theodotion
7. μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος = Received LXX

W.J. Ferrar (1920) English Translation:

1. Angel of Great Counsel
2. Mighty God
3. Mighty, Powerful
4. Strong, ... Powerful
5. Strong, Powerful
6. Strong, Powerful
7. Angel of Great Counsel

Interesting to note that here in Isa 9:6; in the original 3rd Century B.C.E. LXX and at Psa 8:6 Heb., (el) and (elohim) words for "god/God" are interpreted as "Angel/Angels"!

And Jesus is here unambiguously and unmistakeably called an "Angel"

Part 1 - Proverbs 8:22-31 LXX Septuagint Versions

PROVERBS 8:22 GREEK OT: Septuagint with Diacritics: 22 ΚΎΡΙΟΣ ἔκτισέν με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ 23 πρὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐθεμελίωσέν με ἐν ἀρχῇ 24 πρὸ τοῦ τὴν γῆν ποιῆσαι καὶ 24 πρὸ τοῦ τὰς ἀβύσσους ποιῆσαι 24 πρὸ τοῦ προελθεῖν τὰς πηγὰς τῶν ὑδάτων 25 πρὸ τοῦ ὄρη ἑδρασθῆναι πρὸ δὲ πάντων βουνῶν γεννᾷ με 26 ΚΎΡΙΟΣ ἐποίησεν χώρας καὶ ἀοικήτους καὶ ἄκρα οἰκούμενα τῆς ὑπ' οὐρανόν 27 ἡνίκα ἡτοίμαζεν τὸν οὐρανόν συμπαρήμην αὐτῷ καὶ ὅτε ἀφώριζεν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ θρόνον ἐπ' ἀνέμων 28 ἡνίκα ἰσχυρὰ ἐποίει τὰ ἄνω νέφη καὶ ὡς ἀσφαλεῖς ἐτίθει πηγὰς τῆς ὑπ' οὐρανὸν 29 καὶ ἰσχυρὰ ἐποίει τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς 30 ἤμην παρ' αὐτῷ ἁρμόζουσα ἐγὼ ἤμην ᾗ προσέχαιρεν καθ' ἡμέραν δὲ εὐφραινόμην ἐν προσώπῳ αὐτοῦ ἐν παντὶ καιρῷ 31 ὅτε εὐφραίνετο τὴν οἰκουμένην συντελέσας καὶ ἐνευφραίνετο ἐν υἱοῖς ἀνθρώπων

1. ἔκτισέν
2. ἐθεμελίωσέν
3. ποιῆσαι
4. ποιῆσαι
5. γεννᾷ
6. ἐποίησεν
7. ἐποίει
9. ἁρμόζουσα
10. συντελέσας

STRONGS NUMBERS - RELATED GREEK WORDS:
2932 κτάομαι ktaomai “to acquire, obtain, possess, purchase”
2933 κτῆμα ktéma “a possession”
2934 κτῆνος kténos “a beast of burden - from ktaomai; property, i.e. (specially) a domestic animal”
2935 κτήτωρ ktétór “a possessor”
2936 κτίζω ktizó “to build, create”
2937 κτίσις ktisis “creation (the act or the product)”
2938 κτίσμα ktisma “a creature - from ktizo; an original formation (concretely), i.e. Product (created thing)”
2939 κτίστης ktistés “a Creator: - from ktizo; a founder, i.e. God (as author of all things):



Three Greek words are used in Deut 32:6 to showing the different shades in meaning:

Deuteronomy 32:6 Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics
ταῦτα κυρίῳ ἀνταποδίδοτε οὕτω λαὸς μωρὸς καὶ οὐχὶ σοφός οὐκ αὐτὸς οὗτός σου πατὴρ ἐκτήσατό σε καὶ ἐποίησέν σε καὶ ἔκτισέν σε

Lit., “(of) you/your Father ( ἐκτήσατό ) aquire/possess you and ( ἐποίησέν ) make you and ( ἔκτισέν ) create you?”



NETS-LXX(E): "...The Lord created me as the beginning of his ways, for the sake of his works. 23. Before the present age he founded me in the beginning. 24. Before he made the earth and before he made the depths, 25. before he brought forth the springs of the waters, before the mountains were established, and before all the hills, he begets me. 26. The Lord made countries and uninhabbited spaces and the habbitable heights of that beneath the skys. 27. When he prepared the sky, I was present with him, and when he marked out his own throne on the winds. 28. When he made strong the clouds above and when he made secure the springs beneath the sky 29. when he made strong the foundations of the earth, 30. I was beside him, fitting together, it is I who was the one in whom he took delight. And each day I was glad in his presence at every moment, 31. when he rejoiced when he had completed the world and rejoiced among the sons of men..." A New English Translation of the Septuagint 2007

Greek Wisdom in Prov 8:22-31 LXX (italics added - Brenton LXX in English): “The Lord made me the beginning of his ways for his works. 23 He established me before time [was] in the beginning, before he made the earth: 24 even before he made the depths; before the fountains of water came forth: 25 before the mountains were settled, and before all hills, he begets me. 26 The Lord made countries and uninhabited [tracks], and the highest inhabited parts of the world. 27 When he prepared the heaven, I was present with him; and when he prepared his throne upon the winds: 28 and when he strengthened the clouds above; and when he secured the fountains of the earth: 29 and when he strengthened the foundations of the earth: 30 I was by him, suiting [myself to him], I was that wherein he took delight; and daily I rejoiced in his presence continually. 31 For he rejoiced when he had completed the world, and rejoiced among the children of men.” - C.L.Brenton, Lancelot. The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English (Hendrickson, 6th printing, 1997) 795. "The Lord made" in vv. 22 and 26, whereas the subject "Lord" is explicit only once in Hebrew. At the outset, God "creates" Wisdom, and any hint of God's acquiring a pre-existing entity is avoided. For similar reasons, there is in Greek a switch from active verbs to passive verbs in v. 25. "I was brought forth" in Hebrew becomes in Greek "he begets me", and the prior mention of "I (Wisdom) was brought forth" in v. 25 Hebrew is altogether omitted in Greek. In Hebrew, we read that Wisdom was the first of God's works (v. 22). In Greek, Wisdom was made "for his works" … As regards the Greek reading, d'Hamonville suggests that the term harmozousa may be understood in two ways. In the active sense, Wisdom establishes harmony in the universe,
and this sense is expressed in "master-worker". In the passive sense of the term, Wisdom is in full accord, which is understood in "suiting myself [to him]" in the Brenton translation above...” [Footnote: 15] D'Hamonville, Bible d'Alexandrie, 210. On the grounds of the grammatical and metaphorical context, this author argues for the passive sense ("étant bien accordé") rather than the active sense ("mettant en accord"). He also cites the contexts of musical instruments the term has in the Greek bible.” - SOURCE: “AUSTRALIAN EJOURNAL OF THEOLOGY INAUGURAL ISSUE – By Alan Moss, AUGUST 2003.”



GENESIS 1:1 GREEK LXX
ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν


GENESIS 1:1 BRENTONS LXX-(E): “In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth...”

GENESIS 1:1 AQUILA GREEK LXX:
Èν κεφαλαίῳ ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς σὺν τὸν οὐρανὸυ καὶ σὺν τὴν γῆν

GENESIS 1:1 JOSEPHUS GREEK:

“...Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν...”


GENESIS 1:1 WHISTON JOSEPHUS-(E):
“...In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth...” -
Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (English) ed. William Whiston, A.M., Ed. Book 1, section 27



Bagster LXX Proverbs 8:22-30: “The Lord created me a beginning of His ways for His works. He established me before the Age, in the beginning, before He made the earth. … He gave birth to me. … When He prepared the heaven, I was in His presence. … And daily I rejoiced in His presence continually.” [LXX Bagster]

Charles Thomson: Proverbs 8:22: “The Lord created me, 23 the beginning of his ways for his works. Before this age he 24 founded me; in the beginning; before he made the earth and before he made the deeps : before the fountains of water issued 25 forth—before the mountains were established; and before all 26 the hills, he bringeth me forth. The Lord made fields and iimn -27 habited wilds; and the habitable heights of the earth. When he furnished the heaven, I was with him; and when he set apart his 28 own throne on the winds: and when he strengthened the clouds 29 above: and when he secured the fountains of the earth below—30 And when he made the foundations of the earth strong: I was harmonizing with him. I was the one in whom he delighted; 31 and 1 was daily gladdened by his presence on all occasions— when he finished the world and was pleased therewith; and when 32 he was pleased with the sons of men...” - The Holy Bible, Containing The Old And New Covenant, Commonly Called The Old And New Testament: Translated From The Greek. - By Charles Thomson, Late Secretary to the Congress of the United States. Philadelphia: Printed by Jane Aitken, No. 71, North Third Street. 1808.

(PROPHETOLOGION)-LXX(E): “...The Lord created me the beginning of his ways for his works. Before time[2] he established me, in the beginning before he made the earth. And before he made the deeps and before the springs of waters came forth, before the mountains were set firm and before all the hills he begets me. The Lord made countries and uninhabited places and the high inhabited parts of the earth under heaven. When he was preparing the heaven I was present with him, and when he marked out his throne on the winds. When he made the clouds on high strong and secured the fountains of the earth under heaven. When he gave his command to the sea — and the waters will not transgress his order —, and when he was strengthening the foundations of the earth, I was by him arranging all things. I was the one in whom he delighted; while day by day I rejoiced in his presence at every moment...” (Proverbs 8:22-30) This draft translation of the Readings for Vespers follows the Calendar published by the Orthodox Fellowship of St John the Baptist in Great Britain. It therefore includes readings found in a number of different lectionaries, both Greek and Russian. (Archimandrite Ephrem) 2001.
[Footnote: Literally ‘before the age’, but this sounds very odd in English. However, it underlines the fact that the Greek aion is a ‘time’ word, rather than a ‘place’ one.]

2001 Translation Proverbs 8:22-31: “I was created by Jehovah as the head of His ways, and to perform all His works. 23 It was in the beginning (before this age) that He made me… before He decreed the making of earth. 24 It was before He made the abysses, and before the springs gushed with water. 25 It was before the mountains were seated, and before the hills that He generated me. 26 ‘Jehovah made regions and places to live, to the ends of habitation under heaven. 27 And when He was preparing the heavens, it was I who presented them to Him. Then, when He placed His throne on the winds, 28 and moved the clouds above with His strength; and when He made the springs under heaven, 29 and set limits to the waters of the seas (so they couldn’t pass by [their beds]), and when He made strong the foundations of earth, I was there standing beside Him. 30 ‘By Him all things worked together, and He found joy in them all. Each day that I stood there before Him, I too was happy all the time. 31 He was pleased when He finished man’s habitation, and with the sons of men He was pleased...” - 2001 Translation – An American English Bible: With Old Testament based on the Greek Septuagint.


SYRIAC VERSION AGREES WITH THE LXX


Syriac Wisdom Prov 8:22-31 Syriac (Lansa, italics added): 22. “The Lord created me (brny) as the first of his creations (bryth), before all of his works. 23. I was established (i.e., he established me, 'tqnny) from everlasting, from the beginning, before he made the earth. 24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; when there were no fountains abounding with water. 25. Before the mountains were settled (ntqnw), before the hills were formed was I conceived. 26. While as yet he had not made the earth nor the valleys nor the best soil of the world. 27. When he established (mtqn) the heavens, I was there; when he set a circle upon the face of the deep. 28. When made firm the clouds above; when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. 29. When he gave to the sea its bounds, that the waters should not transgress his commandment; when he laid down the foundations of the earth: 30. I together with him was establishing them (mtqn'); and daily I was his delight, rejoicing always before him, 31. Rejoicing in his habitable earth; and my delights were with the sons of men.” - The Syriac translation here is from Holy Bible From the Ancient Eastern Text: George M.Lansa's Translations From the Aramaic of the Peshitta. San Francisco: Harper & Row, nd. “...As in Greek, Syriac Wisdom is unambiguously a creation of the Lord, not God's acquisition. In v. 22 Syriac the verb br', create, sharpens the sense of the Hebrew, as does the Greek. Indeed Syriac reiterates the point of Wisdom being the first creature by translating "his acts" in v. 22 as "his creation" (bryth), using a derivative of "create" in v. 22. … The Syriac term in v. 30 translated above as, "was establishing them", merits some comment. … As is evident from the italic insertions above, verbs of the same root (tqn) are used for the Creator fashioning the mountains in v. 25, for the Creator fashioning the heavens in v. 27a, and for Wisdom's role beside God in v. 30. In v. 31 the Syriac translator renders the Hebrew, not the Greek: "and daily I was HIS delight, rejoicing always before HIM, Rejoicing in HIS habitable earth; and my delights were with the sons of men." (8:30b-31, Syriac).” - SOURCE: “AUSTRALIAN EJOURNAL OF THEOLOGY INAUGURAL ISSUE – By Alan Moss, AUGUST 2003.”


GODS PERSONAL NAME JEHOVAH IN PROVERBS & OT


Wikipedia: “JEHOVAH”: Latin and English transcriptions similar to “Jehovah”: Footnote 114: “For example, Gesenius rendered Proverbs 8:22 in Latin as: "Jehova creavit me ab initio creationis". (Samuel Lee, A lexicon, Hebrew, Chaldee, and English (1840) p. 143)

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jehovah#cite_note-113

Neophytus Vamvas (1770-1856), translation of the Bible into modern Greek


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A Latin rendering of the Tetragrammaton has been the form "Jova", sounding very similar to "Jehovah". (Proverbs 3:19 - Origenis Hexaplorum, edited by Frederick Field, 1875.)

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The Epistle To The Colosians Page 60; The New International Commentry on the New Testament by F. F. Bruce; 1984 EERDMANS: "Thus the well known passage in Prov. 8:22-31, where personified Wisdom...Later Christian writers involved themselves in unnecessary embarrassment by trying to extract a christological exegesis from this passage.[96]"
[FOOTNOTE 96]: "Followers of Athanasius were particularly embarrassed by the LXX wording, Κυριος εκτισεν με ("the Lord created me"), which seemed to play right into the hands of Arians and other heretics."