Sunday, September 25, 2011

JUSTIN MARTYR - JESUS ROLE IS ALWAYS - ( QUALIFIED )! - Part 3

To Justin Martyr the Creator or Maker of the Universe was the God and FATHER of Christ. 

As is evident by the following text:

GREEK TEXT: “...ν ποιητν τν λων κα πατρα νοομεν...” - (Chapter 56:1; Dialouge ed. E. J. Goodspeed, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...whom ( WE ) know to be THE FATHER and Creator of all things, sent with him...” - (Page 217; Chapter 56:1; JUSTIN MARTYR'S: “DIALOGUE with Trypho the Jew,” Translated from the Greek into English, with notes, by Henry Brown, Oxford, 1745.)

But Justin also called Christ a Gk., ( θεὸς ).

But Justin ( qualified ) this by saying he was Gk., ( ἕτερος ) and also Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) to the Father, who was the real Creator and God to Justin:

GREEK TEXT: “...Κἀγὼ [4.] πάλιν· Ἃ λέγω πειράσομαι ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι, νοήσαντας τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος ὑπὸ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων, ὃς καὶ ἄγγελος καλεῖται, διὰ τὸ ἀγγέλλειν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ὅσαπερ βούλεται αὐτοῖς ἀγγεῖλαι ὁ τῶν ὅλων ποιητής, ὑπὲρ ὃν ἄλλος θεὸς οὐκ ἔστι...” - (Chapter 56:4; Dialouge ed. E. J. Goodspeed, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...I will endeavor to convince you of the ( truth ) of what I say ; namely, that there is said to be, and really is another God and Lord ( INFERIOR OR SUBORDINATE TO ) the Creator of all things ; who is also called the Angel ( or Messenger ), because he communicates to mankind all those things, which it is the will of the Creator of all things, ( ABOVE ) whom there is no God, should be communicated to them...” - (Pages 218-219, Chapter 56:4; JUSTIN MARTYR'S: “DIALOGUE with Trypho the Jew,” Translated from the Greek into English, with notes, by Henry Brown, Oxford, 1745.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...Then I replied, “I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood the Scriptures, [of the truth] of what I say, that there is, and that there is said to be, another God and Lord SUBJECT TO [2127] THE MAKER OF ALL THINGS; WHO IS ALSO CALLED AN ANGEL, because He announces to men whatsoever the Maker of all things—above whom there is no other God—wishes to announce to them...” - (Dial. Chapter 54:6. Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)
[FOOTNOTE 2127]: Some, “besides;” but probably as above.

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood the Scriptures, of the truth of what I say, that there is, and that there is said to be, another God and Lord SUBJECT TO THE MAKER OF ALL THINGS...” - (Dial. Chapter 56:4. Sparks Translation Page 223.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): "...Then," I replied, "since you understand these quotations from Scripture, I will attempt to prove my assertion, namely, that there exists and is mentioned in Scripture another God and Lord UNDER the Creator of all things, who is also called an Angel, because He proclaims to man whatever the Creator of the world -- above whom there is no other God -- wishes to reveal to them..." - (Dial. Chapter 56:4; Kevin Edgecome Translation)

The translations above, though good, do not bring out the two contrasting aspects highlighted by Justin's words, nor there full force and meaning.

In my translation I have attempted to bring out the full contrast of Gk., ( ἄλλος ) with ( ἕτερος ) and the contrast also of Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) with Gk., ( ὑπὲρ ) in this passage by Justin:

GREEK TEXT: “...ὅτι [4.] ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος ὑπὸ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων, ὃς καὶ ἄγγελος καλεῖται, διὰ τὸ ἀγγέλλειν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ὅσαπερ βούλεται αὐτοῖς ἀγγεῖλαι ὁ τῶν ὅλων ποιητής, ὑπὲρ ὃν ἄλλος θεὸς οὐκ ἔστι...” - (Chapter 56:4; Dialouge ed. E. J. Goodspeed, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915)

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 165 C.E.):...because this particular one is called a god and a lord, yet is [Gk., ( ἕτερος )] another numerically of a different kind and quality - [Gk., ( ὑπὸ )] ( INFERIOR TO ) THE MAKER OF THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE, who is also called an Angel, through whom messages to mankind are announced concerning whatever is willed by THE MAKER OF THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE, [Gk., ( ὑπὲρ )] ABOVE WHOM there is no [Gk., ( ἄλλος )] other god numerically of the same kind and quality...” - (Dial. Chapter 56:4; Translated by Matt13weedhacker 7/2/11 revised 27/9/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: If Gk., ( ἄλλος ) and ( ἕτερος ) are not contrasted in this passage Justin involves himself in gross self contradiction.
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) “...under...” contrasted with Gk., ( ὑπὲρ ) “...over...” or “...above...”
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ἄλλος ) allos and ( ἕτερος ) heteros are translated ( freely ) and ( contextually ) not according to any hard and fast definition or self-imposed rule. Sometimes the numerical aspect of ( ἄλλος ) is highlighted only – because the context demands nothing more, but at other times in another context its full meaning and difference of ( ἕτερος ) and ( ἄλλος ) in kind and quality is highlighted in addition to the numerical aspect.

Greek Scholars definition's of ( ἄλλος ) Allos and (ἕτερος) Heteros:

KENNETH WUEST: “...Trench warns, “There are not a few passages in the N.T. whose right interpretation, or at any rate their full understanding, will depend on an accurate seizing of the distinction between [Gk., ( ἄλλος ) & ( ἕτερος )] these words..." - (Synonyms of the New Testament by Richard Trench, 1944, page 357, As quoted in: Weusts Word Studies - Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament for the English Reader in the Greek New Testament by Kenneth Wuest 1961 Pages 142-148.)

I say the same goes for Justin Martyr and his writings:

For Lexicon definitions of Gk., ( ἕτερος ) see the link below:


For Lexicon definitions of Gk., ( ἄλλος ) see the link below:


KENNETH WUEST: “...Trench says: [ ἄλλος ]'Allos is numerically distinct ... being of the same character ... But [ ἕτερος ] heteros, ... superadds the notion of qualitative difference'... In summing up the difference between these two words we offer the following: [ ἕτερος ] Heteros means "another of a differen't kind," [ ἄλλος ] allos "another of the same kind." [ ἕτερος ] Heteros denotes qualitative difference, [ ἄλλος ] "allos numerical difference...” - (Weusts Word Studies - Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament for the English Reader in the Greek New Testament by Kenneth Wuest 1961 Pages 142-148.)

MARVIN VINCENT: “...Another [ ἄλλος ] (allos) means more than one with all being of the same like character or a different one in the character of the first. The following are from Vine's. [ ἕτερος ] Heteros is never used in reference to the Trinity: ANOTHER [ ἄλλος ] indicates numeral distinction of objects of similar character, ... Another [ ἕτερος ] (heteros) means more than one with all being of a different character or a different one not of the same character as the first: OTHER [ἕτερος] indicates either numerical distinction, e.g., Luke 4:43; 5:7; or generic distinction, different in character, etc.,..." - (Marvin Vincent's Word Studies In The Greek NT.)

W. E. VINE: “...ANOTHER [ ἄλλος ] allos [ ἕτερος ] heteros have a difference in meaning, which despite a tendency to be lost, is to be observed in numerous passages. [ ἄλλος ] Allos expresses a numerical difference and denotes "another of the same sort;" [ ἕτερος ] heteros expresses a qualitative difference and denotes "another of a different sort..." - (Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words.)
http://studybible.info/vines/Another

A. T. ROBINSON: "...[ ἄλλος ] (allon ...). Another of like kind [ ἄλλος ] (allon, not [ ἕτερος ] eteron )..." - (Robertson's Word Pictures In The New Testament.)

To Justin Jesus was “...called...” Gk., ( θεὸς ) “...a god...” Gk., ( ἕτερος ) “...of a different kind and quality...” to the Father.

To Justin Jesus was “...called...” Gk., ( θεὸς ) “...a god...” who was Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) “...Inferior...” or “...Subordinate to...” or “...Subject to...” or “...Under...” the Father.

Therefore the Father is logically and actually Gk., ( ὑπὲρ ) “...above...” the Son.

The Son was not on an equality with the Father to Justin Martyr.

That doctrine came later from other writers.

This passage was so theologically sensitive, that Tri{3}nitarian translators tried to change the critical Greek text.

As shown in the footnotes in the following two works:

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...Moreover, in p. 275. C.[k], he says: “...I will endeavour to convince you, who know the Scriptures, that ( Another ) is, and is called, 'God' and 'Lord,' ( UNDER ) Him[l.] who is the Maker of all things...” - (Page 696, APPENDIX, Dial. Chapter 56. DEFENSIO FIDEI NICAENAE Vol 4. By Bishop George Bull)
[FOOTNOTE K]: STEPHENS & GRABES EMENDED GREEK TEXT: “...πειράσομαι ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι, νοήσαντας τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος [ l. ὑπὲρ ] τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων...” - [Chapter 56. p. 151.]
[FOOTNOTE L]: “...The reading ( introduced ) by Stephens, ( without MSS authority ) was ( ὑπὲρ ); this Grabe followed, translating it “praeter,” besides ; but as Dr. Burton noticed instead of ( ὑπὲρ ) the Benedictine editor restored ( ὑπὸ ) from the MSS. This is followed in the translation...”

CARL GOTTLOB SEMISCH: “...Dial. c. Tr. c. 56, p. 151, (p. 275, C.) GREEK TEXT: “...Ἃ λέγω πειράσομαι ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι, νοήσαντας τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος ὑπὸ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων, ὃς καὶ ἄγγελος καλεῖται...” The reading Gk., ( ὑπὲρ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων ), which is found in the edition of Thirbly and Maranus, owes its existence merely to an arbitrary alteration by Robert Stephens, who was not satisfied with Gk., ( ὑπὸ ). All the manuscripts read Gk., ( ὑπὸ )...” - (Page 92, Footnote 5; Carl Gottlob Semisch “JUSTIN MARTYR: HIS LIFE, WRITINGS AND OPINIONS” Translated by J.E. Ryland 1843.)

I ask the question how much of this tampering has gone on?

How much has slipped under the radar?

How many texts have been quietly edited in back rooms that scholars felt uncomfortable with which have pssed into the texts today un-detected! Successfully! Without anybody knowing a thing?

Certainly food for thought.

NOTE: To my critics. Please take note that my argument on Justin Martyr is not about his use - or - non use of the definite article with theos in his writings, but, his use of qualifying statements in the surrounding or immediate context. The qualifying factors in Justin's doctrine which are so often swept under the carpet, ignored or side stepped by tri{3}nitarian writers, which are highly significant in the overall picture and evaluating and weighing the doctrinal balance of Justin's theological relationship between the Father and Son.

ALVAN LAMSON - THE CHURCH OF THE FIRST THREE CENTURIES = A MUST READ!


Alvan Lamson's book:

"The church of the first three centuries, or, Notices of the lives and opinions of the early Fathers, with special reference to the doctrine of the Trinity, illustrating its late origin and gradual formation." 1880. 

Is a must read.

Heres the link to read it online for free:

http://www.archive.org/stream/churchfirstthre02lamsgoog#page/n6/mode/2up

He was a Unitarian who did not believe in the Trinity nor the pre-existence of Christ, but his book is full of very interesting information on the earliest Post-Biblical Christian writers.

Enjoy! 

JUSTIN MARTYR - JESUS ROLE IS ALWAYS - ( QUALIFIED )! - Part 2

Although Jesus is in fact called Gk., ( θεὸν ) with or without the article many times in Justin's writings, it - is always ( qualified ) - either in the immediate context or by statements in the greater context of all of Justin's writings.


In the case I present below, it is an anathorus theos, or indefinite zero article construction.

Lets take a close look, particularly the text in red:

The following display some very biased tri{3}nitarian translations of the text, yet still show the qualification nonetheless!

GREEK TEXT: “...οὔτε [4.] οὖν Ἀβραὰμ οὔτε Ἰσαὰκ οὔτε Ἰακὼβ οὔτε ἄλλος ἀνθρώπων εἶδε τὸν πατέρα καὶ ἄρρητον κύριον τῶν πάντων ἁπλῶς καὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνον τὸν κατὰ βουλὴν τὴν ἐκείνου καὶ θεὸν ὄντα, υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἄγγελον ἐκ τοῦ ὑπηρετεῖν τῇ γνώμῃ αὐτοῦ...” - (Dial 127:4 Dialogue with Trypho, Edition. E. J. Goodspeed) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...Therefore neither Abraham, nor Isaac, nor Jacob, nor any other man, saw the Father and ineffable Lord of all, and also of Christ, but [saw] Him who was according to His will His Son, being God, and the Angel because He ministered to His will; whom also it pleased Him to be...” - (CHAPTER [ 127 ] CXXVII -- THESE PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE DO NOT APPLY TO THE FATHER, BUT TO THE WORD. Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...Thus, neither Abraham, nor Issac, nor Jacob, nor any other man saw the FATHER and Ineffable Lord of all creatures and of Christ himself, but [they saw] him who, according to God's will, is God the Son, and his Angel because of his serving the FATHERS will; him who, by his [=the Father] will, became man through a virgin; who also became fire when he talked to Moses from the bush...” - (Chapter 127, Dialogue with Trypho By Justin (Martyr, Saint.) Pages 191-192, Translated by THOMAS B. FALLS and Edited by Michael Slusser 2003.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...nor any other man, ever saw the Father and In-Effable Lord of all things whatever, and of Christ himself; but him, who, according to His will is both God His Son, and His Angel from ministering to His will ; who He determined, should be born as a man of the virgin...” - (Dial. Chapter 127; The Works Now Extant Of Justin Martyr – A LIBRARY OF THE FATHERS OF THE HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH: Anterior To The Division Of The East & West – Translated By Members Of The English Church. [1800's])

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...Thus, neither Abraham, nor Isaac, nor Jacob, nor any other man saw the Father and Ineffable Lord of all creatures and of Christ Himself, but [they saw] Him who, according to God's will, is God the Son, and His Angel because He served the Father's will; Him who, by His will...” - (Dial. Chapter 127, Kevin Edgecome Translation)

My translation:

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...Therefore, neither Abraham, nor Jacob, nor Issac, nor any other men really saw the Father and In-Expressible Lord ( of ) all - and ( of ) - his Christ, but him who being a god according to His will, His Son, even an Angel, serving as a subordinate minister for his purpose...” - (Dial. 127:4; Matt13weedhacker 11/4/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: The Father is also called Gk., ( τν γννητον θεν ) “...THE UN-BEGOTTEN GOD...” in verse one of chapter 127.
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( θεὸν )

Key phrase:

GREEK TEXT: “...κατὰ βουλὴν τὴν ἐκείνου καὶ θεὸν ὄντα, υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἄγγελον...” - (Chapter 127:4, Dialogue with Trypho, Edition. E. J. Goodspeed) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...according to His purpose, and actually a god, His Son, even an Angel...” - (Chapter 127:4, Dialogue with Trypho, translated by Matt13weedhacker 25/9/11 alternate version)
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( βουλὴν ) “...will...” or “...counsel...”

Elsewhere Justin is more to the point and even clearer.

This phrase ( qualifies ) all references to Jesus being called Gk., ( θεός ) in Justin's works:

GREEK TEXT: “...ὡς πατὴρ καὶ θεός, αἴτιός τε αὐτῷ τοῦ εἶναι καὶ δυνατῷ καὶ κυρίῳ καὶ θεῷ...” - (Dial 129:1 Dialogue with Trypho, Edition. E. J. Goodspeed) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...as ( his ) Father and ( God ) was responsible for his being the mighty one and Lord and God...” - (Page 194. Dialogue with Trypho Chapter 129:1, By Justin (Martyr, Saint.), Translated by THOMAS B. FALLS and Edited by Michael Slusser 2003.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...as ( his ) Father and ( God ), and - ( the cause - of ) - his being both mighty and Lord and God...” - (Dial. Chapter 129:1; The Works Now Extant Of Justin Martyr – A LIBRARY OF THE FATHERS OF THE HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH: Anterior To The Division Of The East & West – Translated By Members Of The English Church. [1800's])

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...as he is Father and God; the cause of his power and of his being Lord and God...” - (DIAL. CHAPTER CXXIX -- THAT IS CONFIRMED FROM OTHER PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE. Roberts & Donaldson ANF)

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...as ( his ) Father and God was the cause of his being the mighty one and Lord and God...” - (Dial. Chapter 129, Kevin Edgecome Translation)

My translations: 

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...As his Father and God, and the cause{*} of his [very] being and of his power and being both{^} a lord and a god...” - (Dial 129:1; translated by Matt13weedhacker 25/9/11)
[FOOTNOTE ^]: Gk., ( τε ) “...both – and...”
[FOOTNOTE *]: Gk., ( αἴτιός ) “...cause...” or “...source...” or “...origin...”

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...As his Father and God, the source of both his existence and his power and of his being a lord and a god...” - (Dial 129:1; translated by Matt13weedhacker alternate version.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...As his Father and God, and the origin of his existence and his power and also of his being a lord and a god...” - (Dial 129:1; translated by Matt13weedhacker alternate version.)

This is what Paul means when he was inspired by "God" to say:

EPH 1:17: "...ἵνα ὁ Θεὸς τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ πατὴρ τῆς δόξης, δώῃ ὑμῖν πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως ἐν ἐπιγνώσει αὐτοῦ...” - (Greek NT)

EPH 1:17: "...THE GLORIOUS FATHER WHO IS - THE GOD - ( OF ) - our Lord Jesus Christ to give you the spiritual gifts of wisdom and insight as you come to know him..." - (The Translators New Testament (TTNT) by the British Foreign Bible Society 1973.)

Other versions are a lot more blunt and to the point:

Douay-Rheims Bible
That THE GOD - ( OF ) - our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and of revelation, in the knowledge of him:

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
that THE GOD - ( OF ) - our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him.

And even the venerable old King James 1611:

King James Bible
That THE GOD-  ( OF ) - our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him:

This is verified by the following quote:

CHARLES SEMISCH: “...This relation of ( sub-ordination ) is expressed by Justin distinctly, and under various aspects. He briefly indicates it when, as on several occasions, he assigns to the Logos the ( second ) place ( after ) God. Thus when he says,[3] “...we shall exhibit Jesus Christ, in whom we acknowledge the Son of the True God, and to whom we assign ( THE SECOND PLACE ), and with reason honour the prophetic spirit in ( THE THIRD RANK )...” and[4] “...we adore and love ( AFTER ) GOD, the Logos that is from the Un-Begotten and Un-Utterable God...” and[5] “...( THE FIRST POWER ) and Son ( AFTER ) the Father of all, and Lord God, is the Logos...” and[6] “...the Logos, than whom we know no ruler more royal, and more just, ( AFTER ) GOD who begat him...” The sense in which Justin believed that the Logos was ( sub-ordinate ) to the Father, is twofold – that of complete dependence, and of ( A QUANTITATIVE IN-EQUALITY OF BEING ). Justin considers the Logos as dependent on God, in respect of his existence, his rank, and his power, his worship, and his agency. All that the Logos has, is a gift of the Father.[Page 192 1] He is God, because it was the will of the Father[2] ; he is powerful, yea, Lord of the heavenly hosts, because God made him so[3]; he recieves divine honours because God has ordained it.[4] In all things he stands below the Creator of the world[5]; to him he is sub-ordinate, not merely as Father, but also as Lord[6]; he is the instrument of a higher will. Justin expressly terms the Logos a servant of the Creator[7] of the universe, not so much in relation to creation, and universal enlightening of the world, as in the reference to the Old Testament Theophonies, in which he appeared in God's stead, to teach and to act, to bless and to punish.[8]...” - (Page 191-192. Justin Martyr His Life, Writings, and Opinions by the Rev. Charles Semisch translated from German by J. E. Ryland. Vol II. 1843.)
[FOOTNOTE 3]: 1st Apol. Chapter 13.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: 2nd Apol. Chapter 13.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: 1st Apol Chapter 32.
[FOOTNOTE 6]: 1st Apol. Chapter 12.
[FOOTNOTE Page 192 1]: Dial. Chapter 86. “...ν τρπον κα ατς π το πατρς λαβε τ βασιλες κα Χριστς κα ερες κα γγελος ( εναι ), κα σα λλα τοιατα χει σχε...”
[PERSONAL NOTE]: Varriant = εναι = “...being...”
[FOOTNOTE 2]: Dial. Chapters 127, 129;

PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANTY REVIV'D BY WILLIAM WHISTON = A MUST READ!



To read William Whiston's major work on the Trinity and of the doctrines and writings of the ANF ( "Primitive Christianity Reviv'd" in four volumes ), from the beginning  go to the link below:

( Volume 1 ):

http://www.archive.org/stream/primitivechristi01whis#page/n3/mode/2up
 

( Volume 2 ):

http://www.archive.org/stream/primitivechristi02whis#page/n5/mode/2up
 

( Volume 3 ):

http://www.archive.org/stream/primitivechristi03whis#page/n5/mode/2up
 

( Volume 4 ) the most important of the series in my opinion: 

http://www.archive.org/stream/primitivechristi04whis#page/n9/mode/2up

An interesting essay on doxologies in the same volume:

http://www.archive.org/stream/primitivechristi04whis#page/404/mode/2up
 

NOTE: A word of caution for my Brother's. William Whiston's understanding of the truth was not complete and he held that the holy spirit was a person and a creature made by Christ. But his research on the history of the doctrine of the Tri{3}nity is second to none.

TWO NOTEABLE CORRUPTIONS OF SCRIPTURE BY SIR ISAAC NEWTON = A MUST READ!?


SIR ISAAC NEWTON (circa. 1642-1727 C.E.): “...Having given you an historical account of the corruption of two texts of scripture, I shall now mention some others more briefly. ffor the attempts to corrupt the scriptures have been very many, and; amongst many attempts tis no wonder if some have succeeded. I shall mention those that have not succeeded as well as those that have, because the first will be more easily allowed to be corruptions, and; by being convinced of those, you will cease to be averse from believing the last…” - (“Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture” [1st John 5:7 & 1st Timothy 3:16] The Third Letter (Part 4: ff. 70-83) by Isaac Newton. Source: Ms. 361(4), ff. 70-83, New College Library, Oxford.)

To read Sir Isaac's dissertation from the beginning ( Part 1 ) go to this link:



Tuesday, September 20, 2011

JUSTIN MARTYR - JESUS ROLE IS ALWAYS ( QUALIFIED )!

Justin Martyr on the usual copy and paste biased Trinitarian Apologetic sites normally only quote the English translation of Justin and seldom include the original Greek for comparison. So the un-wary always take things on face value, which can be very misleading.

If you didn't do your own research when it comes to these hypothetical proof texts for the Tri{3}nity doctrine you might actually be suckered into believing what they say.

Justin Martyr when read carefully - always - ( qualifies ) - his statements about the Christ:

For example they often quote a clipped sentence telling you that Christ was called "...Lord of Hosts..." to support the idea that he is in fact "...Jehovah of Armies..." himself.

But lets take a closer look at a couple of these passages and see how Justin - ( qualifies ) - those statements:
 
LATIN TEXT: “...qui Dominus est virtutum per voluntatem Patris hoc ei dantis...” - (Page 395, Dialogus Cum Tryphone Judaeo. Tomus Primus [Book I], Patres Apostolici, COLLECTIO SELECTA SS. ECCLESIAE PATRUM, Complectens Exquisitissima Opera. By D. M. N. S. Guuillon. M. DCCC. XXIX.)

GREEK TEXT: “...ὅς ἐστι κύριος τῶν δυνάμεων διὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ δόντος αὐτῷ πατρός, … κύριος τῶν δυνάμεων κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός, Ἰησοῦς Χριστός...” - (Chapter 85, Dialogue with Trypho, Edition. E. J. Goodspeed) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...who is the Lord of hosts, by the will of the Father who conferred on Him the dignity; … that He who rose from the dead, Jesus Christ, the Lord of hosts, according to the will of the Father,...” - (Chapter 85, Dialogue with Trypho, Translated by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson.)
http://www.logoslibrary.org/justin/trypho/085.html

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...who is Lord of hosts by the will of the Father who bestowed that honor upon Him; … that He who arose from the dead, Jesus Christ, the Lord of hosts, should enter in accordance with the Father's will...” - (Chapter 85, Dialogue with Trypho, Translated by Kevin Edgecome.)
http://www.bombaxo.com/trypho.html

I believe Justin is more accurately translated from the Greek this way:


GREEK TEXT: “...ὅς ἐστι κύριος τῶν δυνάμεων διὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ δόντος αὐτῷ πατρός, … κύριος τῶν δυνάμεων κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός, Ἰησοῦς Χριστός...” - (Chapter 85, Dialogue with Trypho, Edition. E. J. Goodspeed) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...Who is Lord of the Powers, by the permission granted to him through{*} the will of the Father … Lord of the Powers according to the will of the Father, Jesus Christ...” - (Chapter 85, Dialogue with Trypho, Translated by Matt13weedhacker 20/9/11.)

[FOOTNOTE *]: Gk., ( διὰ )

LATIN DEFINITION: “...[Ltn., ( dantis )] do , dĕdi, dătum, dăre (also in a longer form, dănunt = dant, … as, to give away, grant, concede, allow, permit; give up, yield, resign; bestow, present, confer, furnish, afford; offer, etc. (very freq.)...” - (A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1879.)

GREEK DEFINITION: “...[Gk., ( δόντος )] [give, bestow, grant] … abs., of the laws, grant permission, “δόντων αὐτῷ τῶν νόμων” Is.7.2,...” - (Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by. Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940.)


Also compare:


LATIN TEXT: “...ut Christum demonstrem et Deum et Dominum virtutum et Jacob per similitudinem vocari a Spiritu sancto...” - (Page 327, Dialogus Cum Tryphone Judaeo. Tomus Primus [Book I], Patres Apostolici, COLLECTIO SELECTA SS. ECCLESIAE PATRUM, Complectens Exquisitissima Opera. By D. M. N. S. Guuillon. M. DCCC. XXIX.)

GREEK TEXT: “...ὅτι καὶ θεὸς καὶ κύριος τῶν δυνάμεων ὁ Χριστὸς καὶ Ἰακὼβ καλεῖται ἐν παραβολῇ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος...” - (Chapter 36, Dialogue with Trypho, Edition. E. J. Goodspeed) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.)

 
JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...in order to prove that Christ is - ( called ) - both God and Lord of hosts, and Jacob, - ( in parable ) - by the Holy Spirit...” - (Chapter 36. He proves that Christ is called Lord of Hosts. Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...to show that the holy spirit - ( by parable calls ) - Christ God, and Lord of Hosts and of Jacob...” - (Chapter 36, Dialogue with Trypho, translated by Kevin Edgecome.)


Not that I think my translation is any great improvement, but here it is anyway:

GREEK TEXT: “...ὅτι καὶ θεὸς καὶ κύριος τῶν δυνάμεων ὁ Χριστὸς καὶ Ἰακὼβ καλεῖται ἐν παραβολῇ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος...” - (Chapter 36, Dialogue with Trypho, Edition. E. J. Goodspeed) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...in order to show that the Christ is being called “a god” and also “Lord of the Powers” and “Jacob” - ( in parable ) - by{*} the spirit of holiness...” - (Chapter 36, Dialogue with Trypho, Translated by Matt13weedhacker 20/9/11 revised 25/9/11.)

[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ὑπὸ )  

LATIN DEFINITION: “...I. In gen., likeness, resemblance, similitude...” - (A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1879.)

GREEK DEFINITION: “...παραβολή 1 παραβάλλω 1. juxta-position, comparison, Plat. 2. a comparison, illustration, analogy, Arist. 3. a parable, i. e. a fictitious narrative by which some religious or moral lesson is conveyed, Ntest. 4. a by-word, proverb, id=NTest...” - (Liddell and Scott. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1889.)

So this really it is not what it appears or claims to be upon closer investigation. 

NOTE: The Fathers will is always supreme and dominates over Christ.

NOTE: He is called these titles as the visible messenger and representative in the OT by "...the permission granted him..." by "...the Father..."

NOTE: He is called "...Lord of the Powers..." only symbolically or in parable.

NOTE: It is an anathrous Gk., ( θεὸς ) theos in this particular case.

This is just but one example which can be repeated again and again throughout Justins writings.