Sunday, September 25, 2011

JUSTIN MARTYR - JESUS ROLE IS ALWAYS - ( QUALIFIED )! - Part 3

To Justin Martyr the Creator or Maker of the Universe was the God and FATHER of Christ. 

As is evident by the following text:

GREEK TEXT: “...ν ποιητν τν λων κα πατρα νοομεν...” - (Chapter 56:1; Dialouge ed. E. J. Goodspeed, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...whom ( WE ) know to be THE FATHER and Creator of all things, sent with him...” - (Page 217; Chapter 56:1; JUSTIN MARTYR'S: “DIALOGUE with Trypho the Jew,” Translated from the Greek into English, with notes, by Henry Brown, Oxford, 1745.)

But Justin also called Christ a Gk., ( θεὸς ).

But Justin ( qualified ) this by saying he was Gk., ( ἕτερος ) and also Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) to the Father, who was the real Creator and God to Justin:

GREEK TEXT: “...Κἀγὼ [4.] πάλιν· Ἃ λέγω πειράσομαι ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι, νοήσαντας τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος ὑπὸ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων, ὃς καὶ ἄγγελος καλεῖται, διὰ τὸ ἀγγέλλειν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ὅσαπερ βούλεται αὐτοῖς ἀγγεῖλαι ὁ τῶν ὅλων ποιητής, ὑπὲρ ὃν ἄλλος θεὸς οὐκ ἔστι...” - (Chapter 56:4; Dialouge ed. E. J. Goodspeed, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...I will endeavor to convince you of the ( truth ) of what I say ; namely, that there is said to be, and really is another God and Lord ( INFERIOR OR SUBORDINATE TO ) the Creator of all things ; who is also called the Angel ( or Messenger ), because he communicates to mankind all those things, which it is the will of the Creator of all things, ( ABOVE ) whom there is no God, should be communicated to them...” - (Pages 218-219, Chapter 56:4; JUSTIN MARTYR'S: “DIALOGUE with Trypho the Jew,” Translated from the Greek into English, with notes, by Henry Brown, Oxford, 1745.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...Then I replied, “I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood the Scriptures, [of the truth] of what I say, that there is, and that there is said to be, another God and Lord SUBJECT TO [2127] THE MAKER OF ALL THINGS; WHO IS ALSO CALLED AN ANGEL, because He announces to men whatsoever the Maker of all things—above whom there is no other God—wishes to announce to them...” - (Dial. Chapter 54:6. Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)
[FOOTNOTE 2127]: Some, “besides;” but probably as above.

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood the Scriptures, of the truth of what I say, that there is, and that there is said to be, another God and Lord SUBJECT TO THE MAKER OF ALL THINGS...” - (Dial. Chapter 56:4. Sparks Translation Page 223.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): "...Then," I replied, "since you understand these quotations from Scripture, I will attempt to prove my assertion, namely, that there exists and is mentioned in Scripture another God and Lord UNDER the Creator of all things, who is also called an Angel, because He proclaims to man whatever the Creator of the world -- above whom there is no other God -- wishes to reveal to them..." - (Dial. Chapter 56:4; Kevin Edgecome Translation)

The translations above, though good, do not bring out the two contrasting aspects highlighted by Justin's words, nor there full force and meaning.

In my translation I have attempted to bring out the full contrast of Gk., ( ἄλλος ) with ( ἕτερος ) and the contrast also of Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) with Gk., ( ὑπὲρ ) in this passage by Justin:

GREEK TEXT: “...ὅτι [4.] ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος ὑπὸ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων, ὃς καὶ ἄγγελος καλεῖται, διὰ τὸ ἀγγέλλειν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ὅσαπερ βούλεται αὐτοῖς ἀγγεῖλαι ὁ τῶν ὅλων ποιητής, ὑπὲρ ὃν ἄλλος θεὸς οὐκ ἔστι...” - (Chapter 56:4; Dialouge ed. E. J. Goodspeed, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1915)

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 165 C.E.):...because this particular one is called a god and a lord, yet is [Gk., ( ἕτερος )] another numerically of a different kind and quality - [Gk., ( ὑπὸ )] ( INFERIOR TO ) THE MAKER OF THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE, who is also called an Angel, through whom messages to mankind are announced concerning whatever is willed by THE MAKER OF THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE, [Gk., ( ὑπὲρ )] ABOVE WHOM there is no [Gk., ( ἄλλος )] other god numerically of the same kind and quality...” - (Dial. Chapter 56:4; Translated by Matt13weedhacker 7/2/11 revised 27/9/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: If Gk., ( ἄλλος ) and ( ἕτερος ) are not contrasted in this passage Justin involves himself in gross self contradiction.
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) “...under...” contrasted with Gk., ( ὑπὲρ ) “...over...” or “...above...”
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ἄλλος ) allos and ( ἕτερος ) heteros are translated ( freely ) and ( contextually ) not according to any hard and fast definition or self-imposed rule. Sometimes the numerical aspect of ( ἄλλος ) is highlighted only – because the context demands nothing more, but at other times in another context its full meaning and difference of ( ἕτερος ) and ( ἄλλος ) in kind and quality is highlighted in addition to the numerical aspect.

Greek Scholars definition's of ( ἄλλος ) Allos and (ἕτερος) Heteros:

KENNETH WUEST: “...Trench warns, “There are not a few passages in the N.T. whose right interpretation, or at any rate their full understanding, will depend on an accurate seizing of the distinction between [Gk., ( ἄλλος ) & ( ἕτερος )] these words..." - (Synonyms of the New Testament by Richard Trench, 1944, page 357, As quoted in: Weusts Word Studies - Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament for the English Reader in the Greek New Testament by Kenneth Wuest 1961 Pages 142-148.)

I say the same goes for Justin Martyr and his writings:

For Lexicon definitions of Gk., ( ἕτερος ) see the link below:


For Lexicon definitions of Gk., ( ἄλλος ) see the link below:


KENNETH WUEST: “...Trench says: [ ἄλλος ]'Allos is numerically distinct ... being of the same character ... But [ ἕτερος ] heteros, ... superadds the notion of qualitative difference'... In summing up the difference between these two words we offer the following: [ ἕτερος ] Heteros means "another of a differen't kind," [ ἄλλος ] allos "another of the same kind." [ ἕτερος ] Heteros denotes qualitative difference, [ ἄλλος ] "allos numerical difference...” - (Weusts Word Studies - Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament for the English Reader in the Greek New Testament by Kenneth Wuest 1961 Pages 142-148.)

MARVIN VINCENT: “...Another [ ἄλλος ] (allos) means more than one with all being of the same like character or a different one in the character of the first. The following are from Vine's. [ ἕτερος ] Heteros is never used in reference to the Trinity: ANOTHER [ ἄλλος ] indicates numeral distinction of objects of similar character, ... Another [ ἕτερος ] (heteros) means more than one with all being of a different character or a different one not of the same character as the first: OTHER [ἕτερος] indicates either numerical distinction, e.g., Luke 4:43; 5:7; or generic distinction, different in character, etc.,..." - (Marvin Vincent's Word Studies In The Greek NT.)

W. E. VINE: “...ANOTHER [ ἄλλος ] allos [ ἕτερος ] heteros have a difference in meaning, which despite a tendency to be lost, is to be observed in numerous passages. [ ἄλλος ] Allos expresses a numerical difference and denotes "another of the same sort;" [ ἕτερος ] heteros expresses a qualitative difference and denotes "another of a different sort..." - (Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words.)
http://studybible.info/vines/Another

A. T. ROBINSON: "...[ ἄλλος ] (allon ...). Another of like kind [ ἄλλος ] (allon, not [ ἕτερος ] eteron )..." - (Robertson's Word Pictures In The New Testament.)

To Justin Jesus was “...called...” Gk., ( θεὸς ) “...a god...” Gk., ( ἕτερος ) “...of a different kind and quality...” to the Father.

To Justin Jesus was “...called...” Gk., ( θεὸς ) “...a god...” who was Gk., ( ὑπὸ ) “...Inferior...” or “...Subordinate to...” or “...Subject to...” or “...Under...” the Father.

Therefore the Father is logically and actually Gk., ( ὑπὲρ ) “...above...” the Son.

The Son was not on an equality with the Father to Justin Martyr.

That doctrine came later from other writers.

This passage was so theologically sensitive, that Tri{3}nitarian translators tried to change the critical Greek text.

As shown in the footnotes in the following two works:

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...Moreover, in p. 275. C.[k], he says: “...I will endeavour to convince you, who know the Scriptures, that ( Another ) is, and is called, 'God' and 'Lord,' ( UNDER ) Him[l.] who is the Maker of all things...” - (Page 696, APPENDIX, Dial. Chapter 56. DEFENSIO FIDEI NICAENAE Vol 4. By Bishop George Bull)
[FOOTNOTE K]: STEPHENS & GRABES EMENDED GREEK TEXT: “...πειράσομαι ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι, νοήσαντας τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος [ l. ὑπὲρ ] τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων...” - [Chapter 56. p. 151.]
[FOOTNOTE L]: “...The reading ( introduced ) by Stephens, ( without MSS authority ) was ( ὑπὲρ ); this Grabe followed, translating it “praeter,” besides ; but as Dr. Burton noticed instead of ( ὑπὲρ ) the Benedictine editor restored ( ὑπὸ ) from the MSS. This is followed in the translation...”

CARL GOTTLOB SEMISCH: “...Dial. c. Tr. c. 56, p. 151, (p. 275, C.) GREEK TEXT: “...Ἃ λέγω πειράσομαι ὑμᾶς πεῖσαι, νοήσαντας τὰς γραφάς, ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ λέγεται θεὸς καὶ κύριος ἕτερος ὑπὸ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων, ὃς καὶ ἄγγελος καλεῖται...” The reading Gk., ( ὑπὲρ τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων ), which is found in the edition of Thirbly and Maranus, owes its existence merely to an arbitrary alteration by Robert Stephens, who was not satisfied with Gk., ( ὑπὸ ). All the manuscripts read Gk., ( ὑπὸ )...” - (Page 92, Footnote 5; Carl Gottlob Semisch “JUSTIN MARTYR: HIS LIFE, WRITINGS AND OPINIONS” Translated by J.E. Ryland 1843.)

I ask the question how much of this tampering has gone on?

How much has slipped under the radar?

How many texts have been quietly edited in back rooms that scholars felt uncomfortable with which have pssed into the texts today un-detected! Successfully! Without anybody knowing a thing?

Certainly food for thought.

NOTE: To my critics. Please take note that my argument on Justin Martyr is not about his use - or - non use of the definite article with theos in his writings, but, his use of qualifying statements in the surrounding or immediate context. The qualifying factors in Justin's doctrine which are so often swept under the carpet, ignored or side stepped by tri{3}nitarian writers, which are highly significant in the overall picture and evaluating and weighing the doctrinal balance of Justin's theological relationship between the Father and Son.