Part 1 - Proverbs 8:22-31 LXX Septuagint Versions
PROVERBS 8:22 GREEK OT: Septuagint with Diacritics: 22 ΚΎΡΙΟΣ ἔκτισέν με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ 23 πρὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐθεμελίωσέν με ἐν ἀρχῇ 24 πρὸ τοῦ τὴν γῆν ποιῆσαι καὶ 24 πρὸ τοῦ τὰς ἀβύσσους ποιῆσαι 24 πρὸ τοῦ προελθεῖν τὰς πηγὰς τῶν ὑδάτων 25 πρὸ τοῦ ὄρη ἑδρασθῆναι πρὸ δὲ πάντων βουνῶν γεννᾷ με 26 ΚΎΡΙΟΣ ἐποίησεν χώρας καὶ ἀοικήτους καὶ ἄκρα οἰκούμενα τῆς ὑπ' οὐρανόν 27 ἡνίκα ἡτοίμαζεν τὸν οὐρανόν συμπαρήμην αὐτῷ καὶ ὅτε ἀφώριζεν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ θρόνον ἐπ' ἀνέμων 28 ἡνίκα ἰσχυρὰ ἐποίει τὰ ἄνω νέφη καὶ ὡς ἀσφαλεῖς ἐτίθει πηγὰς τῆς ὑπ' οὐρανὸν 29 καὶ ἰσχυρὰ ἐποίει τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς 30 ἤμην παρ' αὐτῷ ἁρμόζουσα ἐγὼ ἤμην ᾗ προσέχαιρεν καθ' ἡμέραν δὲ εὐφραινόμην ἐν προσώπῳ αὐτοῦ ἐν παντὶ καιρῷ 31 ὅτε εὐφραίνετο τὴν οἰκουμένην συντελέσας καὶ ἐνευφραίνετο ἐν υἱοῖς ἀνθρώπων
STRONGS NUMBERS - RELATED GREEK WORDS:
2932 κτάομαι ktaomai “to acquire, obtain, possess, purchase”
2933 κτῆμα ktéma “a possession”
2934 κτῆνος kténos “a beast of burden - from ktaomai; property, i.e. (specially) a domestic animal”
2935 κτήτωρ ktétór “a possessor”
2936 κτίζω ktizó “to build, create”
2937 κτίσις ktisis “creation (the act or the product)”
2938 κτίσμα ktisma “a creature - from ktizo; an original formation (concretely), i.e. Product (created thing)”
2939 κτίστης ktistés “a Creator: - from ktizo; a founder, i.e. God (as author of all things):
Three Greek words are used in Deut 32:6 to showing the different shades in meaning:
Deuteronomy 32:6 Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics
ταῦτα κυρίῳ ἀνταποδίδοτε οὕτω λαὸς μωρὸς καὶ οὐχὶ σοφός οὐκ αὐτὸς οὗτός σου πατὴρ ἐκτήσατό σε καὶ ἐποίησέν σε καὶ ἔκτισέν σε
Lit., “(of) you/your Father ( ἐκτήσατό ) aquire/possess you and ( ἐποίησέν ) make you and ( ἔκτισέν ) create you?”
NETS-LXX(E): "...The Lord created me as the beginning of his ways, for the sake of his works. 23. Before the present age he founded me in the beginning. 24. Before he made the earth and before he made the depths, 25. before he brought forth the springs of the waters, before the mountains were established, and before all the hills, he begets me. 26. The Lord made countries and uninhabbited spaces and the habbitable heights of that beneath the skys. 27. When he prepared the sky, I was present with him, and when he marked out his own throne on the winds. 28. When he made strong the clouds above and when he made secure the springs beneath the sky 29. when he made strong the foundations of the earth, 30. I was beside him, fitting together, it is I who was the one in whom he took delight. And each day I was glad in his presence at every moment, 31. when he rejoiced when he had completed the world and rejoiced among the sons of men..." A New English Translation of the Septuagint 2007
Greek Wisdom in Prov 8:22-31 LXX (italics added - Brenton LXX in English): “The Lord made me the beginning of his ways for his works. 23 He established me before time [was] in the beginning, before he made the earth: 24 even before he made the depths; before the fountains of water came forth: 25 before the mountains were settled, and before all hills, he begets me. 26 The Lord made countries and uninhabited [tracks], and the highest inhabited parts of the world. 27 When he prepared the heaven, I was present with him; and when he prepared his throne upon the winds: 28 and when he strengthened the clouds above; and when he secured the fountains of the earth: 29 and when he strengthened the foundations of the earth: 30 I was by him, suiting [myself to him], I was that wherein he took delight; and daily I rejoiced in his presence continually. 31 For he rejoiced when he had completed the world, and rejoiced among the children of men.” - C.L.Brenton, Lancelot. The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English (Hendrickson, 6th printing, 1997) 795. "The Lord made" in vv. 22 and 26, whereas the subject "Lord" is explicit only once in Hebrew. At the outset, God "creates" Wisdom, and any hint of God's acquiring a pre-existing entity is avoided. For similar reasons, there is in Greek a switch from active verbs to passive verbs in v. 25. "I was brought forth" in Hebrew becomes in Greek "he begets me", and the prior mention of "I (Wisdom) was brought forth" in v. 25 Hebrew is altogether omitted in Greek. In Hebrew, we read that Wisdom was the first of God's works (v. 22). In Greek, Wisdom was made "for his works" … As regards the Greek reading, d'Hamonville suggests that the term harmozousa may be understood in two ways. In the active sense, Wisdom establishes harmony in the universe, and this sense is expressed in "master-worker". In the passive sense of the term, Wisdom is in full accord, which is understood in "suiting myself [to him]" in the Brenton translation above...” [Footnote: 15] D'Hamonville, Bible d'Alexandrie, 210. On the grounds of the grammatical and metaphorical context, this author argues for the passive sense ("étant bien accordé") rather than the active sense ("mettant en accord"). He also cites the contexts of musical instruments the term has in the Greek bible.” - SOURCE: “AUSTRALIAN EJOURNAL OF THEOLOGY INAUGURAL ISSUE – By Alan Moss, AUGUST 2003.”
GENESIS 1:1 GREEK LXX
ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν
GENESIS 1:1 BRENTONS LXX-(E): “In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth...”
GENESIS 1:1 AQUILA GREEK LXX:
Èν κεφαλαίῳ ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς σὺν τὸν οὐρανὸυ καὶ σὺν τὴν γῆν
GENESIS 1:1 JOSEPHUS GREEK:
“...Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν...”
GENESIS 1:1 WHISTON JOSEPHUS-(E): “...In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth...” - Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (English) ed. William Whiston, A.M., Ed. Book 1, section 27
Bagster LXX Proverbs 8:22-30: “The Lord created me a beginning of His ways for His works. He established me before the Age, in the beginning, before He made the earth. … He gave birth to me. … When He prepared the heaven, I was in His presence. … And daily I rejoiced in His presence continually.” [LXX Bagster]
Charles Thomson: Proverbs 8:22: “The Lord created me, 23 the beginning of his ways for his works. Before this age he 24 founded me; in the beginning; before he made the earth and before he made the deeps : before the fountains of water issued 25 forth—before the mountains were established; and before all 26 the hills, he bringeth me forth. The Lord made fields and iimn -27 habited wilds; and the habitable heights of the earth. When he furnished the heaven, I was with him; and when he set apart his 28 own throne on the winds: and when he strengthened the clouds 29 above: and when he secured the fountains of the earth below—30 And when he made the foundations of the earth strong: I was harmonizing with him. I was the one in whom he delighted; 31 and 1 was daily gladdened by his presence on all occasions— when he finished the world and was pleased therewith; and when 32 he was pleased with the sons of men...” - The Holy Bible, Containing The Old And New Covenant, Commonly Called The Old And New Testament: Translated From The Greek. - By Charles Thomson, Late Secretary to the Congress of the United States. Philadelphia: Printed by Jane Aitken, No. 71, North Third Street. 1808.
(PROPHETOLOGION)-LXX(E): “...The Lord created me the beginning of his ways for his works. Before time he established me, in the beginning before he made the earth. And before he made the deeps and before the springs of waters came forth, before the mountains were set firm and before all the hills he begets me. The Lord made countries and uninhabited places and the high inhabited parts of the earth under heaven. When he was preparing the heaven I was present with him, and when he marked out his throne on the winds. When he made the clouds on high strong and secured the fountains of the earth under heaven. When he gave his command to the sea — and the waters will not transgress his order —, and when he was strengthening the foundations of the earth, I was by him arranging all things. I was the one in whom he delighted; while day by day I rejoiced in his presence at every moment...” (Proverbs 8:22-30) This draft translation of the Readings for Vespers follows the Calendar published by the Orthodox Fellowship of St John the Baptist in Great Britain. It therefore includes readings found in a number of different lectionaries, both Greek and Russian. (Archimandrite Ephrem) 2001.
[Footnote: Literally ‘before the age’, but this sounds very odd in English. However, it underlines the fact that the Greek aion is a ‘time’ word, rather than a ‘place’ one.]
2001 Translation Proverbs 8:22-31: “I was created by Jehovah as the head of His ways, and to perform all His works. 23 It was in the beginning (before this age) that He made me… before He decreed the making of earth. 24 It was before He made the abysses, and before the springs gushed with water. 25 It was before the mountains were seated, and before the hills that He generated me. 26 ‘Jehovah made regions and places to live, to the ends of habitation under heaven. 27 And when He was preparing the heavens, it was I who presented them to Him. Then, when He placed His throne on the winds, 28 and moved the clouds above with His strength; and when He made the springs under heaven, 29 and set limits to the waters of the seas (so they couldn’t pass by [their beds]), and when He made strong the foundations of earth, I was there standing beside Him. 30 ‘By Him all things worked together, and He found joy in them all. Each day that I stood there before Him, I too was happy all the time. 31 He was pleased when He finished man’s habitation, and with the sons of men He was pleased...” - 2001 Translation – An American English Bible: With Old Testament based on the Greek Septuagint.
Syriac Wisdom Prov 8:22-31 Syriac (Lansa, italics added): 22. “The Lord created me (brny) as the first of his creations (bryth), before all of his works. 23. I was established (i.e., he established me, 'tqnny) from everlasting, from the beginning, before he made the earth. 24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; when there were no fountains abounding with water. 25. Before the mountains were settled (ntqnw), before the hills were formed was I conceived. 26. While as yet he had not made the earth nor the valleys nor the best soil of the world. 27. When he established (mtqn) the heavens, I was there; when he set a circle upon the face of the deep. 28. When made firm the clouds above; when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. 29. When he gave to the sea its bounds, that the waters should not transgress his commandment; when he laid down the foundations of the earth: 30. I together with him was establishing them (mtqn'); and daily I was his delight, rejoicing always before him, 31. Rejoicing in his habitable earth; and my delights were with the sons of men.” - The Syriac translation here is from Holy Bible From the Ancient Eastern Text: George M.Lansa's Translations From the Aramaic of the Peshitta. San Francisco: Harper & Row, nd. “...As in Greek, Syriac Wisdom is unambiguously a creation of the Lord, not God's acquisition. In v. 22 Syriac the verb br', create, sharpens the sense of the Hebrew, as does the Greek. Indeed Syriac reiterates the point of Wisdom being the first creature by translating "his acts" in v. 22 as "his creation" (bryth), using a derivative of "create" in v. 22. … The Syriac term in v. 30 translated above as, "was establishing them", merits some comment. … As is evident from the italic insertions above, verbs of the same root (tqn) are used for the Creator fashioning the mountains in v. 25, for the Creator fashioning the heavens in v. 27a, and for Wisdom's role beside God in v. 30. In v. 31 the Syriac translator renders the Hebrew, not the Greek: "and daily I was HIS delight, rejoicing always before HIM, Rejoicing in HIS habitable earth; and my delights were with the sons of men." (8:30b-31, Syriac).” - SOURCE: “AUSTRALIAN EJOURNAL OF THEOLOGY INAUGURAL ISSUE – By Alan Moss, AUGUST 2003.”
Wikipedia: “JEHOVAH”: Latin and English transcriptions similar to “Jehovah”: Footnote 114: “For example, Gesenius rendered Proverbs 8:22 in Latin as: "Jehova creavit me ab initio creationis". (Samuel Lee, A lexicon, Hebrew, Chaldee, and English (1840) p. 143)”
Neophytus Vamvas (1770-1856), translation of the Bible into modern Greek
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The Epistle To The Colosians Page 60; The New International Commentry on the New Testament by F. F. Bruce; 1984 EERDMANS: "Thus the well known passage in Prov. 8:22-31, where personified Wisdom...Later Christian writers involved themselves in unnecessary embarrassment by trying to extract a christological exegesis from this passage."
[FOOTNOTE 96]: "Followers of Athanasius were particularly embarrassed by the LXX wording, Κυριος εκτισεν με ("the Lord created me"), which seemed to play right into the hands of Arians and other heretics."