Saturday, April 3, 2010

Part 1 - Isa 9:6 LXX Variant Readings According to Eusebius of Ceasarea

VARIANT LXX TEXTS OF (ISAIAH 9:6) IN THE TIME OF EUSEBIUS

Alternative readings to “mighty god”.



MODERN RECEIVED LXX TEXT:

[Modern Text of the Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics]: “...[Isaiah 9:6] ὅτι παιδίον ἐγεννήθη ἡμῖν υἱὸς καὶ ἐδόθη ἡμῖν οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐγενήθη ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ καὶ καλεῖται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος ἐγὼ γὰρ ἄξω εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας εἰρήνην καὶ ὑγίειαν αὐτῷ [Isaiah 9:7] μεγάλη ἡ ἀρχὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν ὅριον ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον δαυιδ καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ κατορθῶσαι αὐτὴν καὶ ἀντιλαβέσθαι αὐτῆς ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν καὶ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον ὁ ζῆλος κυρίου σαβαωθ ποιήσει ταῦτα...”


LXX VERSION'S AVAILABLE IN EUSEBIUS TIME


Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...His Name is said to be, according to the Septuagint, “Angel of Great Counsel”...”

[Quotation by Eusebius of 3rd Century B.C. LXX Greek text]: “...καὶ τούτῳ γοῦν ὄνομα εἶναι λέγεται κατὰ μὲν τοὺς ἑβδομήκοντα «μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος»,...”

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...and as some of the copies have, "Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Potentate, Prince of Peace, Father of the World to Come."...”

[Some LXX MSS (2nd - 3rd Century) Septuagint]: “...καὶ ὥς τινα τῶν ἀντιγράφων ἔχει, «θαυμαστὸς σύμβουλος, θεὸς ἰσχυρός, ἐξουσιαστής, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, πατὴρ τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος»,...”

[Some LXX MSS (2nd - 3rd Century) Eusebius Latin]: “...Et vocatur nomen ejus magni consilii angelus admirabilis consiliarius Deus fortis potentiam habens principes pacis pater futuri saeculi...”

Notice the Greekfor "mighty god" just like John 1:1 it has no definite article. It could be translated: "a strong god" with a small (g).

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...In the Hebrew, as Aquila says: "For unto us a child is born, to us a son is given, and a measure was upon his shoulders. And his name was called Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty, Powerful, Father, even Prince of Peace, and of his peace there is no end."

[(2nd - 3rd Century) Hebrew, Aquila]: 7.1.136 κατὰ δὲ τὸ Ἑβραϊκόν, ὡς μὲν Ἀκύλας φησίν· «ὅτι παιδίον ἐγεννήθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς ἐδόθη ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐγένετο μέτρον ἐπ' ὤμου αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ θαυμαστὸς σύμβουλος, ἰσχυρός, δυνατός, πατὴρ ἔτι, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν πέρας»,

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...But who can this be who, in Aquila's version and those even now current among the Hebrews, is "begotten among men, and become a child, Wonderful and Strong, Counsellor, Powerful, and Father, yea even Prince of peace, Whose peace, he says, will never end?"

[(2nd - 3rd Century) Then Current Hebrew, Aquila Greek]: 7.1.139 τίς δ' ἂν οὖν γένοιτο κατὰ μὲν τὸν Ἀκύλαν καὶ τὰς εἰσέτι νῦν φερομένας παρ' Ἑβραίοις μαρτυρίας ἐν ἀνθρώποις γεννώμενος, καὶ «παιδίον» γινόμενος, «θαυμαστὸς σύμβουλος» καὶ «ἰσχυρός», «δυνατός», καὶ «πατὴρ ἔτι», καὶ «ἄρχων εἰρήνης», ἧς εἰρήνης οὔποτέ φησιν ἔσεσθαι τέλος,

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...And as Symmachus: "For a youth is given to us, a son is given us; and his instructions shall be upon his shoulders, and his name shall be called Miraculous, Counselling, Strong, Powerful, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace, and of his (b) peace there is no end."

Symmachus LXX Greek: 7.1.137 ὡς δὲ ὁ Σύμμαχος· «νεανίας γὰρ ἐδόθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς ἐδόθη ἡμῖν. καὶ ἔσται ἡ παιδεία αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ, καὶ κληθήσεται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ παραδοξασμός, βουλευτικός, ἰσχυρός, δυνατός, πατὴρ αἰῶνος, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν πέρας».

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...or in that of Symmachus, "Miraculous, Counselling, Strong, Powerful, Eternal Father, Prince of peace, and that endless and infinite"...”

Symmachus LXX Variant Greek: “...κατὰ δὲ τὸν Σύμμαχον «παραδοξασμός, βουλευτικός, ἰσχυρός, δυνατός, πατὴρ αἰῶνος, ἄρχων εἰρήνης», καὶ ταύτης ἀπείρου καὶ ἀτελευτήτου,...”

Eusebius of Caesarea: Demonstratio Evangelica. Tr. W.J. Ferrar (1920) -- Book 7 CHAPTER 1 (b) From Isaiah: “...or in Theodotion's "Counselling wonderfully, Strong, Powerful, Father, Prince of peace, for increasing instruction, of Whose peace there is no end."...”

Theodotion's LXX Greek: “...καὶ κατὰ Θεοδοτίωνα «θαυμαστῶς βουλεύων, ἰσχυρός, δυνάστης, πατήρ, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, τῷ πληθύνειν τὴν παιδείαν, οὗ τῆς εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔστιν πέρας»;

ENGLISH TRANS SOURCE: http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/eusebius_de_09_book7.htm

GREEK SOURCE: http://www.textexcavation.com/eusebius.html

Scroll down page to find subheading: “Available texts” down a little bit to: “Internet Archive” and click on the link “6-10” in: “DEMONSTRATION books 1-5, 6-10” for the Greek text. Turn to Pages 336/337 in scanned book.

http://www.archive.org/stream/evangelicaedemo00donagoog#page/n157/mode/1up

Compare also:

"Wonder-Counsellor, Divine Champion, Father Ever, Captain of Peace." - Byington's The Bible in Living English

"A wonder of a counsellor, a divine hero, a father for all time, a peaceful prince." - Moffatt's The Bible

"in purpose wonderful, in battle God-like...." - New English Bible

"Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty Hero, Eternal Father...." - Revised English Bible

"Great Leader, Time's Father, the Prince of Peace." - The Complete Bible in Modern English by Ferrar Fenton

"divine hero, father of spoil, prince of peace" - Isaiah 1:12 Old Testament Library-A Commentary by Otto Kaiser

"God-Hero;" - The Catholic New American Bible (1970 and 1991 revision)

"mighty hero" - Biblical Hebrew language expert Gesenius - p. 45, Gesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon.


Aleppo Codex Isaiah Chapter 9:

Jesaja Kapitel 8-9, Tanach via Aleppo Codex

Bilder: Älteste bekannte Darstellung der Jungfrau Maria, Katakomben von Priscilla, Rom, spätes 2. Jahrhundert; Aleppo Codex


To summarize:

Eusebius who had access to Origen's Hexapala gives these readings for the Heb., ( אֵ֣ל גִּבֹּ֔ור ) el gibbor in the LXX Versions of his time:

1. μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος = Original LXX
2. θεὸς ἰσχυρός = Some Copies LXX = Minority
3. ἰσχυρός, δυνατός = Aquila
4. ἰσχυρός, δυνατός = Authorised Heb., LXX
5. ἰσχυρός, δυνατός = Symmachus
6. ἰσχυρός, δυνάστης = Theodotion
7. μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος = Received LXX

W.J. Ferrar (1920) English Translation:

1. Angel of Great Counsel
2. Mighty God
3. Mighty, Powerful
4. Strong, ... Powerful
5. Strong, Powerful
6. Strong, Powerful
7. Angel of Great Counsel

Interesting to note that here in Isa 9:6; in the original 3rd Century B.C.E. LXX and at Psa 8:6 Heb., (el) and (elohim) words for "god/God" are interpreted as "Angel/Angels"!

And Jesus is here unambiguously and unmistakeably called an "Angel"