Wednesday, April 27, 2011

JOHN 1:1 & THE USE & NON-USE OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE IN GREEK



PHILO JUDAEUS (c. 20 B.C.E to 50 C.E.): “...And do not pass by what is here said, but examine it accurately, and see whether there are really two Gods. For it is said: 'I am the God who was seen by thee;' not in my place, but in the place of God, as if he meant of some other God. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, 'I am the God [ho theos];' but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, 'He who was seen by thee in the place,' not of the God [tou theou], but simply 'of God' [theou]; and what he here calls God is his most Ancient Word [Logos]...” - (On Dreams, 1.228-230)


COMPARE:


(ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA): “...We next notice John's use of the article in these sentences. He does not write without care in this respect, nor is he unfamiliar with the niceties of the Greek tongue. In some cases he uses the article, and in some he omits it. He adds the article to the Logos, but to the name of God he adds it sometimes only. He uses the article, when the name of God refers to the uncreated cause of all things, and omits it when the Logos is named God. Does the same difference which we observe between God with the article and God without it prevail also between the Logos with it and without it? We must enquire into this. As the God who is over all is God with the article not without it, so "the Logos" is the source of that reason (Logos) which dwells in every reasonable creature; the reason which is in each creature is not, like the former called par excellence The Logos. Now there are many who are sincerely concerned about religion, and who fall here into great perplexity. They are afraid that they may be proclaiming two Gods, and their fear drives them into doctrines which are false and wicked. Either they deny that the Son has a distinct nature of His own besides that of the Father, and make Him whom they call the Son to be God all but the name, or they deny the divinity of the Son, giving Him a separate existence of His own, and making His sphere of essence fall outside that of the Father, so that they are separable from each other. To such persons we have to say that God on the one hand is Very God (Autotheos, God of Himself); and so the Saviour says in His prayer to the Father, "That they may know Thee the only true God; "but that all beyond the Very God -- IS ( MADE ) GOD -- by participation in His divinity, and is not to be called simply God (with the article), but rather God (without article). And thus the first-born of all creation, who is the first to be with God, and to attract to Himself divinity, is a being of more exalted rank than the other gods beside Him, ( of ) whom God - is the God, as it is written, "The God of gods, the Lord, hath spoken and called the earth." It was by the offices of the first-born that they became gods, for He drew from God in generous measure that they should be made gods, and He communicated it to them according to His own bounty. The true God, then, is "The God," and those who are formed after Him are gods, images, as it were, of Him the prototype. But the archetypal image, again, of all these images is the Word of God, who was in the beginning, and who by being with God is at all times God, not possessing that of Himself, but by His being with the Father, and not continuing to be God, if we should think of this, except by remaining always in uninterrupted contemplation of the depths of the Father...” - (Commentary On John, Book. 2. Chapter 2. IN WHAT WAY THE LOGOS IS GOD. ERRORS TO BE AVOIDED ON THIS QUESTION. Roberts & Donaldson ANF.)



(ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA): “...We may by this solve the doubts which terrify many men, who pretend to great piety, and who afraid of making two Gods, and through this, fall into vain and impious opinions ; denying that the nature of the Son [Gk., heteros] ( is-different ) [Gk., para] from that of the Father, and who acknowledge that he is God [Gk., me(chi)ri ovomatos par'] in name only ; or denying the divinity of the Son, and then maintaining that his nature and essence is [Gk., heterav folowed by the genitive article] ( different-from ) that of the Father. For we must tell them, that he who is God of himself, is God with the article ; but that all who are not [Gk., auto-theos] God of themselves, who are ( divine ) by ( becoming ) partakers of ( his ) divinity, are God ( without ) the article, and severally, among whom especially ( is ) the first-born of ( of ) all the creatures...” - (Commentary in John II. p. 47. [As quoted in: “The theological and miscellaneous works of Joseph Priestley, Volume 6] Page 254.)



Compare a little further on in the same Commentary:



(ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA): “...There was God with the article [1:1b] and God without the article [1:1c], then there were gods in two orders, at the summit of the higher order of whom is God the Word, transcended Himself by the God of the universe. And again, there was the Logos with the article and the Logos without the article, corresponding to God absolutely and a god..." - (Commentary on the Gospel According to John, translated by: Mensies, Allan, D.D., Professor of Biblical Criticism, St. Andrews University. Appearing as vol. q0 in: The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Translations of the Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325, Origens Book 2, part 2, p 324. American Reprint of the Edinburgh 2nd Edition.)

SAMPLES OF JUSTIN MARTYRS CHRISTOLOGY

CHARLES SEMISCH COMENTS ON - JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...This relation of ( sub-ordination ) is expressed by Justin distinctly, and under various aspects. He briefly indicates it when, as on several occasions, he assigns to the Logos the ( second ) place ( after ) God. Thus when he says,[3] “...we shall exhibit Jesus Christ, in whom we acknowledge the Son of the True God, and to whom we assign ( THE SECOND PLACE ), and with reason honour the prophetic spirit in ( THE THIRD RANK )...” and[4] “...we adore and love ( AFTER ) GOD, the Logos that is from the Un-Begotten and Un-Utterable God...” and[5] “...( THE FIRST POWER ) and Son ( AFTER ) the Father of all, and Lord God, is the Logos...” and[6] “...the Logos, than whom we know no ruler more royal, and more just, ( AFTER ) GOD who begat him...” The sense in which Justin believed that the Logos was ( sub-ordinate ) to the Father, is twofold – that of complete dependence, and of ( A QUANTITATIVE IN-EQUALITY OF BEING ). Justin considers the Logos as dependent on God, in respect of his existence, his rank, and his power, his worship, and his agency. All that the Logos has, is a gift of the Father.[Page 192 1] He is God, because it was the will of the Father[2] ; he is powerful, yea, Lord of the heavenly hosts, because God made him so[3]; he recieves divine honours because God has ordained it.[4] In all things he stands below the Creator of the world[5]; to him he is sub-ordinate, not merely as Father, but also as Lord[6]; he is the instrument of a higher will. Justin expressly terms the Logos a servant of the Creator[7] of the universe, not so much in relation to creation, and universal enlightening of the world, as in the reference to the Old Testament Theophonies, in which he appeared in God's stead, to teach and to act, to bless and to punish.[8]...” - (Page 191-192. Justin Martyr His Life, Writings, and Opinions by the Rev. Charles Semisch translated from German by J. E. Ryland. Vol II. 1843.)
[FOOTNOTE 3]: 1st Apol. Chapter 13.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: 2nd Apol. Chapter 13.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: 1st Apol Chapter 32.
[FOOTNOTE 6]: 1st Apol. Chapter 12.
[FOOTNOTE Page 192 1]: Dial. Chapter 86. 
GREEK TEXT: “...ν τρπον κα ατς π το πατρς λαβε τ βασιλες κα Χριστς κα ερες κα γγελος ( εναι ), κα σα λλα τοιατα χει σχε...” - (Dial. Chapter 86.)
[PERSONAL NOTE]: Varriant = εναι = “...being...”
[FOOTNOTE 2]: Dial. Chapters 127, 129;
GREEK TEXT: “...οὔτε [4.] οὖν Ἀβραὰμ οὔτε Ἰσαὰκ οὔτε Ἰακὼβ οὔτε ἄλλος ἀνθρώπων εἶδε τὸν πατέρα καὶ ἄρρητον κύριον τῶν πάντων ἁπλῶς καὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνον τὸν κατὰ βουλὴν τὴν ἐκείνου καὶ θεὸν ὄντα, υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἄγγελον ἐκ τοῦ ὑπηρετεῖν τῇ γνώμῃ αὐτοῦ...” - (Dial 127:4)

CHRIST AS AN ANGEL BEFORE NICEA - PART (2)

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 160 C.E.): “...The word Gk., ( dunamis ), which Justin sometimes applies to the Logos,[3] denotes in ecclesiastical language, a person as well as a power. Thus to mention only two examples, Satan[4] and the good Angels[5] by Justin, and the Angels[6] by Athenagoras, are called Gk., ( dunamis )...” - (Page 188. Justin Martyr His Life, Writings, and Opinions by the Rev. Charles Semisch translated from German by J. E. Ryland. Vol II. 1843.)
[FOOTNOTE 3]: 1st Apol. Chapter 32; Dial. Chapters 61, 105;
[FOOTNOTE 4]: Dial. Chapter 125.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: Dial. Chapter 85.
[FOOTNOTE 6]: Athenagoras Legat. Chapter 24.

BOTH JUSTIN & TRYPHO SAY THE FATHER MADE & CREATED JESUS

[FOOTNOTE Page 185 2]: Dial. Chapter 114, p. 207. (p. 341, D.) It is also worthy of remark, that Justin allows Trypho's assertion that God had ( CREATED ) Christ Gk., ( τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ καὶ αὐτὸν τοῦτον ποιήσαντος ), to pass without animadversion.--c. Tr. c. 64, p. 161, (p. 287, C.) Similar language is used by Tatian, (Orat. c. Gr. c. 5, p. 247, (p. 145, A.) Gk., ( ἔργον πρωτότοκον τοῦ πατρὸς γίνεται )...” - (Page 184-185. Justin Martyr His Life, Writings, and Opinions by the Rev. Charles Semisch translated from German by J. E. Ryland. Vol II. 1843.)

What does animadvert mean?

ANIMADVERT as VERB
  1. Meaning
    • express blame or censure or make a harshly critical remark

    Hypernyms(s) animadvert is a kind of… Example: animal is a hypernym of mammal, plant is a hypernym of flower
    • reprimand (what does reprimand mean?)
    • censure (what does censure mean?)
    • criminate (what does criminate mean?)

    Derived(s)
    • censure 
    • animadversion
WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

Monday, April 4, 2011

JUSTIN MARTYR SAID THE FATHER WAS THE "...CAUSE..." OF THE SONS BEING

A passage Trinitarians struggle mightly with:


GREEK TEXT: "...Καὶ [1.] νῦν δὲ ἔτι καὶ οὓς εἶπον λόγους εἰς ἀπόδειξιν τούτου ἐρῶ. ὅταν λέγῃ· Ἔβρεξε κύριος πῦρ παρὰ κυρίου ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, δύο ὄντας ἀριθμῷ μηνύει ὁ λόγος ὁ προφητικός, τὸν μὲν ἐπὶ γῆς ὄντα, ὅς φησι καταβεβηκέναι ἰδεῖν τὴν κραυγὴν Σοδόμων, τὸν δὲ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς ὑπάρχοντα, ὃς καὶ τοῦ ἐπὶ γῆς κυρίου κύριός ἐστιν, ὡς πατὴρ καὶ θεός, αἴτιός τε αὐτῷ τοῦ εἶναι καὶ δυνατῷ καὶ κυρίῳ καὶ θεῷ..." - (Dial. Chapter 129:1) 
 
(JUSTIN MARTYR): “...The former is the LORD ( of ) the Lord who was upon the earth, AS HIS FATHER AND GOD, THE (CAUSE-OF-HIS-EXISTENCE), AND OF HIS BEING POWERFUL, AND LORD AND GOD...” - (Dial. Try. p. 413. [As quoted in: “The theological and miscellaneous works of Joseph Priestley, Volume 6] Page 241.)

(JUSTIN MARTYR c. 160): “..."To prove this point, I will now repeat some of the Scriptural passages I already quoted. When the word of the prophecy says, 'The Lord rained fire from the Lord out of heaven' [Gen 19.24], it indicates that they are two in number: One on earth, who came down to witness the cry of Sodom, and One in Heaven, who is the Lord of that Lord on earth, and AS ( HIS ) FATHER ( AND ) GOD WAS THE (αἴτιος) CAUSE ( OF ) HIS ( BEING ) THE MIGHTY ONE AND LORD AND GOD...” - (Dial. 129, Kevin Edgecome Translation)

(JUSTIN MARTYR): “...The prophetic word intimates that there were ( Two ) in number ; One being on earth, who says that He had come down to see the cry of Sodom ; the Other being in the heavens, who is the Lord even ( of ) the Lord on earth, as being [His] Father ( and God ), and [as being] to Him the [Gk., aitiov tou eivai] ( cause – of His being – and of ) His being both mighty, and Lord, ( and ) God...” - (Page 557, Dial. DEFENSIO FIDEI NICAENAE Vol 4. By Bishop George Bull)
[PERSONAL NOTE 1]: Page 560 Gk., ( aitia ) “cause” or “origin” the equivalent in Latin is Ltn., ( causa ).

It is obvious by the above that whatever Justin Martyr thought about Jesus being Gk., ( theos ) or even Gk., ( ho theos ) that they were not on an equality.

( BOTH ) JUSTIN & TRYPHO ACKNOWLEDGE CHRIST AS A "...MADE..." OR "...CREATED..." BEING

Refering to Jesus – Justin Martyr wrote:

GREEK TEXT: “...καὶ [3.] διὰ Σολομῶνος φήσαντος ταῦτα· Ἐὰν ἀναγγείλω ὑμῖν τὰ καθ' ἡμέραν γινόμενα, μνημονεύσω τὰ ἐξ αἰῶνος ἀριθμῆσαι. κύριος ἔκτισέ με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ. πρὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐθεμελίωσέ με ἐν ἀρχῇ...” - (Dial. Chapter 61:3)

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...when He speaks by Solomon the following: 'If I shall declare to you what happens daily, I shall call to mind events from everlasting, and review them. THE LORD MADE ME the beginning of His ways for His works...” - (Dial. Chapter 61:3; Roberts & Donalson ANF)

Gk., ( ἔκτισέ ) more correctly translated: “...THE LORD ( CREATED ) ME...”

Which Trypho acknowledged he understood Justins comments and agreed that Christ was "...CREATED..." in the context:

GREEK TEXT: “...Καὶ [1.] ὁ Τρύφων· Ἔστω ὑμῶν, τῶν ἐξ ἐθνῶν, κύριος καὶ Χριστὸς καὶ θεὸς γνωριζόμενος, ὡς αἱ γραφαὶ σημαίνουσιν, οἵτινες καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ Χριστιανοὶ καλεῖσθαι πάντες ἐσχήκατε· ἡμεῖς δέ, τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ καὶ αὐτὸν τοῦτον ποιήσαντος λατρευταὶ ὄντες, οὐ δεόμεθα τῆς ὁμολογίας αὐτοῦ οὐδὲ τῆς προσκυνήσεως...” - (Dial. LXIV:I)

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...Grant Him,” replied Trypho, “to be, as the Scriptures declare, [Gk., Kurios = anathorus] the Lord, and Christ, and [Gk., theos = anathorus] God, of you Gentiles, who also are, all of you, termed Christians from His name, yet His confesssion and worship are not incumbent on us, who are the servants of THE GOD WHO CREATED HIM...” - (Dial. Cahpter 64:1; The Works Now Extant Of Justin Martyr – A LIBRARY OF THE FATHERS OF THE HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH: Anterior To The Division Of The East & West – Translated By Members Of The English Church. [1800's])

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...You who come from the Gentiles," said Trypho, "who are all called Christians from His name, may profess Him to be [Gk., Kurios = anathorus] Lord and Christ and [Gk., theos = anathorus] God, as the Scriptures signify, but we Jews, who adore THE GOD WHO MADE HIM, are not obliged to confess or worship Him...” - (Dial. Chapter 64:1; Kevin Edgecomes Translation)

JUSTIN MARTYR (c. 110 to 165 C.E.): “...Here Trypho said, "Let Him be recognised as [Gk., Kurios = anathorus] Lord and Christ and [Gk., theos = anathorus] God, as the Scriptures declare, by you of the Gentiles, who have from His name been all called Christians; but we who are servants OF GOD THAT MADE THIS SAME [CHRIST], do not require to confess or worship Him." ...” - (CHAPTER LXIV:I -- JUSTIN ADDUCES OTHER PROOFS TO THE JEW, WHO DENIES THAT HE NEEDS THIS CHRIST. Roberts & Donaldsons ANF)

YET ANOTHER FALSE TRINITARIAN CLIAM ABOUT THE ANF WRITER IRENAEUS

Heres a FALSE claim about Irenaeus and the Trinity by a Trinitarian that can be found online!

(MICHAEL PARTYKA): “...Was the Trinity "unknown" to Irenaeus? ... just like the doctrine of the Trinity says. No wonder, then, that he concludes his book On the Apostolic Preaching with this prayer: “...Glory to the All-Holy Trinity and one Divinity: Father and Son and all-provident Holy Spirit, forever, Amen....” - (“THE WATCHTOWER AND THE ANTE-NICENE CHURCH FATHERS” by Michael Partyka 11/14/2005)

You could read Irenaeus book “On Apostolic Preaching” and possibly think he's right.

But upon close inspection of photographs of the original Armenian text you find this claim is downright miss-leading and dishonest. 

Exactly what Trinitarian Apologist Michael Partyka accuses Jehovah's Witnesses of.

Partyka conclusion is based soley upon an English translation without actually knowing what the original says. This is where many Trinitarian Cyber Apologist's go wrong OFTEN!

St. IRENAEUS - [ ΕἸΣ ἘΠΊΔΕΙΞΙΝ ΤΟΥ͂ ἈΠΟΣΤΟΛΙΚΟΥ͂ ΚΗΡΎΓΜΑΤΟΣ ] THE PROOF OF APOSTOLIC PREACHING WITH SEVEN FRAGMENTS ARMENIAN VERSION EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY HIS LORDSHIP THE BISHOP KARAPET TER MEKERTTSCHIAN AND THE REV. DR. S. G. WILSON WITH THE CO-OPERATION OF H. R. H. PRINCE MAXE OF SAXONY D. D. AND D. C. L.

An important point is to be found in the Preface of the above translation:

PREFACE PAGE 1: "...In the 13th Century, between 1270 and 1289, the manuscript was copied under the superintendence of Archbishop IIoannes, the younger brother of haitun, the Cilician king of Armenia, he is the author of several works, still extant..." - (St. IRENAEUS - [ ΕἸΣ ἘΠΊΔΕΙΞΙΝ ΤΟΥ͂ ἈΠΟΣΤΟΛΙΚΟΥ͂ ΚΗΡΎΓΜΑΤΟΣ ] THE PROOF OF APOSTOLIC PREACHING WITH SEVEN FRAGMENTS ARMENIAN VERSION EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY HIS LORDSHIP THE BISHOP KARAPET TER MEKERTTSCHIAN AND THE REV. DR. S. G. WILSON WITH THE CO-OPERATION OF H. R. H. PRINCE MAXE OF SAXONY D. D. AND D. C. L.)
 

Now at the end of the original MSS in Armenian there is a line indicating the end of Irenaeus actual text then followed by this note:

IRENAEUS PROOF OF APOSTOLIC PREACHING

“Praise to the All-Holy Trinity and one Godhead, the Father, Son and All-Provident Holy Spirit forever. Amen. Remember in one Lord the God-strengthened and thrice blessed Arch-bishop Der IIohannes, the owner of this book, the brother of the holy king: and humble scribe.”

This as the preface clearly shows is a note from the 13TH CENTURY ARMENIAN TRANSLATOR - not - from Irenaeus himself.

But that is not how the online article by a Trinitarian portrays it. I never take Trinitarian claims at face value! Always check the source texts!

The following is also from another translation:

INTRODUCTION

[SUBHEADING]: I - THE DOCUMENT AND ITS VALUE


"...We cannot say whether this error of title goes back beyond the date of the manuscript, which was probably written between 1270–1289, that is in the time of the learned Archbishop John, the brother of King Hetum of Cilicia. A note at the end states that it was written for this archbishop. The Armenian editors believe that the same translator is responsible for the two books of the larger work and for our treatise, and that the translation was made at some date between 650 and 750..." - (Page 7, “The Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching” by St. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon, Christian Classics Ethereal Library ; by Robinson, Armitage, D.D. (Editor) Publisher: The Macmillan Co. 1920)
Another translation of "On Apostolic Preaching" by Irenaeus confirms the above:

(S. IRENAEUS - ΕἸΣ ἘΠΊΔΕΙΞΙΝ ΤΟΥ͂ ἈΠΟΣΤΟΛΙΚΟΥ͂ ΚΗΡΎΓΜΑΤΟΣ - THE PROOF OF APOSTOLIC PREACHING WITH SEVEN FRAGMENTS ARMENIAN VERSION EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY HIS LORDSHIP THE BISHOP KARAPET TER MEKERTTSCHIAN AND THE REV. DR. S. G. WILSON WITH THE CO-OPERATION OF H. R. H. PRINCE MAXE OF SAXONY D. D. AND D. C. L.)

Page 122: The Latin translation of the Armenian at the line break in the text calls it:

ADDITAMENTUM SCRIPTORIS

“Irenaei demonstratio apostolicae praedicationis”

“Gloria sanctissimae Trinitati et uni Deitati, Patri et Filio et omni-providenti Sancto Spiritui in Seacula. Amen Deo accepti et ter beati archiepiscopi Domini Ioannis possessoris librorum, fratis sancti regis mementote in Domino, et miselli scriptoris.”

As you can see this is the Latin text of the above so-called 'trinitarian' passage.

What is the meaning of: “...ADDITAMENTUM SCRIPTORIS...” ?

additamentum , i, n. addo,
I. an addition, accession, increase
A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1879.

scrīptor öris, m
scribo, one who writes, a writer, scribe, copyist, clerk : scriptores male mulcati: librarius, H.— One that composes in writing, a writer, composer, author, reporter, narrator...
Lewis, Charlton, T. An Elementary Latin Dictionary. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago. American Book Company. 1890.

It is simply a: "...SCRIBAL ADDITION..." by the 13th Century Copyist.

CONCLUSION: No Trinity at all was taught, let a lone mentioned by Irenaeus, and never, I mean never - take Trinitarian claims on face value.

P.S. Mr Partyka has since edited and removed his comments above. Perhaps he read my comments elsewhere online when I first posted the above on the History Channel Forum on: "...The History Of The Trinity..."

SAMPLES IN IRENAEUS CHRISTOLOGY

(IRENAEUS): “...We now come to a rather complicated problem, in which it is difficult to mark the exact positions of Irenaeus---the relation of the Divine Persons of the Godhead to one another. In some passages the Persons are co-ordinated ; while in others there seems to be a ( subordination ) in relations of the Son to the Father and of the Spirit to the Son...” - (Page 115, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

"...Problem..." = only for Trinitarians!

(IRENAEUS): “...The Word ( received ) an universal authority ( from ) the Father...” - (Page 115, Adv. Haer. V. 18. 2, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...In IV. 7. 4 he describes the Son as the [Ltn., progenies] “Offspring” and the Spirit as the [Ltn., figuratio] “Similitude” of the Father. Basil varies this snetence, writing “Christ is the image of God, but the Spirit is the image of the Son [Adv. Eunom. p. 116.] … Again, the special function of the Son is the revelation of the Father: “...The Father bearing witness to the Son and the Son announcing the Father...” [III. 6. 2. Cf. Mt. xi. 27. Jn. x. 15, etc] See also IV. 6. 3: “...The Father ( sends ), but the Son is ( sent )...” “...The Son ( administers ) all things ( for ) the Father, carrying them through from the beginning to the end, and without Him no man can know the Father. For the Son is the knowledge of the Father...” [IV. 6. 7. Compare also John 17:3] “...The Father is the ( in-visible ) of the Son and the Son is the ( visible ) of the Father...” [IV. 6. 7.] “...The Father revealed Himself to all ( by ) - ( making ) His Word ( visible ) to all...” [IV. 6. 3.]...” - (Page 115/116, Adv. Haer. IV. 7. 4, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...For if the Son was not ashamed to - ( reserve for ) – ( GOD ) the knowledge of that day – we should not hesitate to reserve our difficulties for ( GOD ). If any one should therefore, say to us: “How was the Son ( produced – by – THE FATHER )?” We reply that no one understands that – [Ltn., prolatio = Gk., προβολή] ( production ), generation, name or revelation, or whatever term is employed to express that in-effable generation … Seeing that His generation is in-effable, they are far astray who disscuss generations and productions. The theory of emissions is no great discovery, nor is the ascription of an ordinary human process to the Only-Begotten a remarkable revelation...” - (Page , Adv. Haer. II. 28. 6, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[FOOTNOTE]: “...Justin had used προβληθὲν γέννημα of the Son (Trypho. 62)...”

(IRENAEUS): “...Who shall declare His generation?” [Isa liii. 8.] : “This is added lest we despise Him on account of His enimies and His sufferings. For He Who hath suffered all this hath a generation that cannot be described, for by His generation ( is – meant – His – origin ), that is, ( HIS FATHER ), Who is In-Effable and In-Describable...” Cf. IV. 33. 11: “...He has an indescribable generation...” This is after Justin, 1st Apol. Chapter 51...” - (Page 116, Dem Of. Apost. Preach. Chapter 70, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...The Father Who is [Ltn., immensum] ( without – measure ) found His [Ltn., mensuratum] ( measure ) in the Son : for the Son is the ( measure ) of the Father, see that He [the Father] contains Him [the Son]...” - (Page 117, Adv. Haer. IV. 4. 2, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[FOOTNOTE]: LATIN TEXT: “...Mensura enim Patris Filius quoniam et capit eum...”

(IRENAEUS): “...In some passages we find the Holy Spirit ( subordinated ) in His functions to the Father and the Son. The Spirit is: “...the Spirit ( of ) the Father, who purifies man and raises him to the life of God[V. 9. 2]...” He is the prophetic Spirit[III. 11. 9, see also IV. 20. 4: Ltn., “...prophetae ab eodem Verbo propheticum accipientes charisma...” etc.], “...Who proclaimed ( through ) the prophets the dispensations of God[I. 10. 1.]...” “...Who introduces [Gk., σκηνοβατοῦν] in each generation the dispensations of the Father and the Son, – ( according to ) the Fathers ( will )...” - [IV. 33. 7.] Harvey renders as [Ltn., exponens] after the Latin: “...qui … exposuit...” Massuet gives the sense in [Ltn., pervulgavit]. But the Greek word implies ( management ) as well as 'exposition,' originally referring to 'stage-management.' It is through the Spirit as well as the Word that God is manifested. [Ltn., “...Sic igitur manifestabatur Deus … Spiritu quidem operante, Filio vero administrante...” - [IV. 20. 6.]...” - (Page 117, Adv. Haer. , Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...The Word uniting man to the Spirit and ( placing ) the Spirit in man, is ( made – the – Head – of ) [the] Spirit and ( gives ) the Spirit to be the Head of the man...” - (Page , Adv. Haer. V. 20. 2, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...The Father bearing His creation and his Word at the same time and the Word [Ltn., portatum] borne by the Father ( give ) the Spirit to as many as the Father ( wills )...” - (Page 118, Adv. Haer. V. 18. 2, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...For the Son, as He is God, ( recieves – from ) the Father, that is God, the ( throne ) of the everlasting Kingdom and the ( Unction ) as none of His fellows do and the ( Unction ) is the Spirit ( with ) whom He is anointed...” - (Page 119, Dem. Of Apost. Preach. Chapter xlvii [47?], Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[FOOTNOTE]: Cf. Adv. Haer. III. 18. 3. Ltn., “...unguentem Patrem et unctum Filium et unctionem qui est Spiritus...” - (a reference to Isaiah lxi. 1).

(IRENAEUS): “...As [3632] it has been clearly demonstrated that [Page 446] the Word, who existed in the beginning with God, by whom all things were made, who was also always present with mankind, was in these last days, according to the time appointed by the Father, united to His own workmanship, inasmuch as He became a man liable to suffering, [it follows] that every objection is set aside of those who say, “If our Lord was born at that time, Christ had therefore no previous existence.” For I have shown that the Son of God did not then begin to exist, being with the Father from the beginning; but when He became incarnate, and was made man, He commenced afresh[3633] the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam—namely, to be according to the image and likeness of God—that we might recover in Christ Jesus...” - (Page 446, BOOK III. Chapter XVIII.1. ANF Roberts & Donaldsons)
[FOOTNOTE 3632]: Again a Syriac fragment supplies some important words. See Harvey, vol. ii. p. 440.
[FOOTNOTE 3633]: So the Syriac. The Latin has, “in seipso recapitulavit,” He summed up in Himself. [As the Second Adam, 1 Cor. xv. 47.]

SAMPLES IN IRENAEUS CHRISTOLOGY

(IRENAEUS): “...The FATHER bears the ( creation ) – and – ( His Word ) at the same time...” - (Page 107, Adv. Haer. V. 18. 2, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[NOTE]: The writer goes on to say: “...In V. 18. 1, the Father is described as ( containing ) the entire Pleroma...” The writer is reluctant to quote it, and doesn't.

(IRENAEUS): “...It is the Word ( of ) God that is the actual Creator of the ( world ). But He is our Lord Who in recent times was ( made ) man, Who in an invisible manner [Ltn., continet] contains all things ( created ), and is [Ltn., infixus] immanent ( in ) the whole ( creation ) and governs all things. Therefore He came visibly unto His own and was ( made ) flesh. For it is He Who has authority over all things ( FROM ) – HIS FATHER, since He is both the Word ( of ) God and ( very ) man, Who ( communicates – with ) invisible beings after [Ltn., rationaliter] a ( rational – manner )[#], but (for the visible creation) ordains a law which is apparent to the [Ltn., sensualiter] senses, namely, that all things should perservere in their order. He ( reigns ) manifestly ( over – the things ) that are visible and ( pertain to – the life of man )...” - (Page 107/108, Adv. Haer. V. 18. 3, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[PERSONAL NOTE #]: Compare Justin Martyrs “...a certain rational power...” Note also he ( as ) “the Word” does the “comunicat[ing]” with mankind etc. He is the Spokesman who delivers the messages.
[PERSONAL NOTE]: Note whenever Irenaeus says Jesus is a god or creator etc., it is always qualified with “...according to the will of the Father...” or as in this case “...things ( from ) his Father...” [EXAMPLE]: “...The Only-Begotten Word ( of ) God, Who has been always present with the human race, united and blended with His ( own – creation ) --- according to the FATHER'S good ( pleasure )...” - (Adv. Haer. Bk., III. 16. 6.)
[PERSONAL NOTE]: He is ( limited ) to things “pertaining to the life of man” and is only the creator of the “world” which is also ( qualified ) everywhere else, as he is the intermediate agency “...THROUGH WHOM...” and not the source of this creation as the Father is always and consistently made out to be by Irenaeus.

(IRENAEUS): “...For God is mighty ( in ) all things, being ( seen ) at that time ( prophetically – through ) the Spirit, being ( seen ) also ( adoptively – through ) the Son, and yet to be ( seen ) paternally ( in ) the Kingdom of Heaven. The Spirit truly prepares man [# Or “in”] for the Son of God ; the Son ( leads ) him ( to ) THE FATHER, and THE FATHER confers upon him incorruption with a view to eternal life, which comes to everyone from the ( vision ) of God...” - (Page 108/109, Adv. Haer. IV. 20. 5, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[FOOTNOTE #]: Ltn., “...in Filium...” (Ar.) ; “...in Filio...” (Cl. And Voss).

(IRENAEUS): “...God as the prophets declared ( in – figures ), shall be ( seen ) by men who ( bear – His ) Spirit and await His (v.l. Christ's) coming. Thus was God revealed. For GOD THE FATHER is manifested ( through – all these operations ), the Spirit working, the Son administering, and the FATHER approving, while man's salvation was being accomplished...” - (Page 109, Adv. Haer. IV. 20. 6, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[FOOTNOTE]: LATIN TEXT: “...Spiritu quidem operante, Filio vero administrante, Patre vero comprobante, homine vero consummato ad salutem...”

(IRENAEUS): “...The ( whole – plan ) of salvation, which concerns man, was ( made --- according to the will of ) THE FATHER so that GOD might not be conquered nor His ( work ) weakened...” - (Page 109, Adv. Haer. III. 23. 1, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...So that we might ( recover ) - ( in ) - Christ Jesus what we had ( lost ) - ( in ) Adam, namely, the being after the image and likeness of God...” - (Page 107, Adv. Haer. III. 18. 1, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...The presbyters, the disciples of the Apostles, held that man ( ascended – through -steps ) of this kind, namely ( through ) the Spirit ( to ) the Son and ( through ) the Son ( to ) the Father, and that in the course of time the Son ( will ) deliver ( up ) everything ( to ) THE FATHER, so that GOD will be 'all in all'...” - (Page 110, Adv. Haer. V. 36. 2, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...Wherefore, then, ( in ) all things and ( through ) all things there is ONE GOD, THE FATHER, and one Word, one Son and one Spirit, and one salvation to all that believe on Him...” - (Page 110, Adv. Haer. IV. 6. 7, Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[FOOTNOTE]: Massuet omits unus. It is not in Cl., Ar., or Voss MSS. “...Filius...” is omitted by Stireren. But unus is necessary to the sense and balance of the sentence.

(IRENAEUS): “...The relation of the Father to the Son is given in III. 6. 2. and IV. 38. 3, where the Father is represented as ( commanding ) and the Son as ( performing ). The same thought occurs in Basil [De Spiritu Sancto 38. “...the Lord [Gk., προστάσσοντα] ( ordering ) and the Word ( framing)...”], in Hippolytus, Contra Noetum, 14,...” - (Page 111, Adv. Haer. , Chapter VIII, “The Doctrine of the Trinity,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

SAMPLES IN IRENAEUS CHRISTOLOGY - THE RULE OF FAITH

(IRENAEUS): “..These are the words of the Church, from which every Church doth take its rise; these are the words of the metropolis of the citizens of the New Testament; these are the words of the Apostles; these are the words of the disciples of the Lord, of those who were truly perfect, being perfected by the Spirit after their Lord's assumption, and who invoked the God Who made heaven and earth and the sea, and was announced by the prophets and His Son Jesus Whom God anointed, not knowing any other God...” - (Page 69, Adv. Haer. III. 12. 5. Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...The Church, although scattered over the face of the earth, received from the Apostles and their disciples the faith in ( One ) God, the ( Father ) Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, the seas and all that in them is, and the One Christ Jesus the Son of God, Who became incarnate for our salvation, and ( in ) the Holy Ghost, Who by the prophets proclaimed the dispensations and the advents, and the Virgin-birth, and the passion and the resurrection from the dead, and the bodily ascension of the ( well-beloved ) Christ Jesus our Lord into heaven, and His ( Parousia ) from the heavens in the glory of the Father to gather up all things in Himself and to raise the flesh of all mankind to life, in order that every thing in heaven and in earth and under the earth should bow to Christ Jesus our Lord and [Gk., theos = anathorus without the article] ( God ), our Saviour and our King, – ( according to the Will of the invisible Father ), and that every tounge should confess to Him, and that He should pronounce judgement upon all, and dissmiss spiritual wickedness, and the angels who transgressed and ( became ) apostate along with the un-godly, un-righteous and profane, into everlasting fire, but in His graciousness should confer life and the reward of incorruption and eternal glory upon those who have kept His commandments and abided in His love, either from the beginning of their life or since their repentance...” - (Page 69/70, Adv. Haer. I. 10. 1, Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...The rule of truth [Ltn., regula veritatis] we hold is, that there is ( One ) God Almighty, Who made all things by His Word and fashioned and formed that which has existence out of that which had none. As the Scripture saith, 'By the Word of the Lord and the Spirit of His ( Mouth ) were the heavens and all their glory established.' And again, 'All things were made [Gk., dia & Ltn., per = “through”] by Him and without Him was nothing made.' There is no exception ; but the Father [1st Cor 15:24-28] made all things [Gk., dia = Col 1:16-18] by Him, both visible and invisible, objects of sense and intelligence, temporal, eternal and everlasting. And such He did not make by angel(s) or by any ( powers ) seperated from ( His Thought ). For God needs nought of such things ; but He it is Who ( by ) His Word and Spirit ( makes, governs, and gives being to all things ), Who created the universe, Who is the God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob. Above Him there is no other God, neither initail principle, nor power, nor pleroma. ( He is – THE FATHER – of – our Lord ) Jesus Christ. Holding this rule, we shall easily show the heretics, in spite of their many and various assertions, have deviated from the truth...” - (Page 72/73, Adv. Haer. I. 22. 1, Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...But there is ( one – only ) God, the Creator. He is ( above – every ) principality ( power ) and dominion and ( virtue ). ( HE IS – FATHER ). ( HE IS – GOD ). He is the Founder and Maker and Builder. He made all these things, the heavens, the earth, the seas and all that therein is, ( by ) Himself, that is ( by ) His Word and His Wisdom. He formed man, He planted Paradise, He made the world, He sent the flood, He saved Noah, ( HE IS – GOD ) of the living ; Whom the Law proclaims, the prophets preach, and Christ ( reveals ) ; Whom the Apostles announce and ( in – Whom ) the Church believes. ( HE IS – THE FATHER OF ) our Lord Jesus Christ ( through ) His Word, who is His Son ; ( through ) Him He is ( revealed ) and manifested to all to whom He is made known ; for they ( only – know Him ) to whom the Son reveals Him. But the Son always existing with THE FATHER ( from ) of old, yea, ( from ) the beginning, ( ever ) revealeth ( THE FATHER ) to Angels, Archangels, Powers, and Virtues, and to whomsoever He pleaseth...” - (Page 73, Adv. Haer. II. 30. 9, Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...With our words the [Ltn., praedicatio] preaching of the Apostles, the master-teaching of the Lord, the announcements of the prophets, the [Ltn., dictatio] dictated utterances of the Apostles, and the ministry of the law are in agreement. For ( all – these ) praise one and the ( same ) GOD AND FATHER OF ALL, not different Gods, nor one deriving His ( substance ) from diverse dieties, or powers ; but they declare that all things were made by ( one and the – same – FATHER ) who adapts His method to the nature and form of His material, and that things, visible and invisible, were created neither by angel(s) nor by any Virtue, but ( GOD THE FATHER ALONE )...” - (Page 74/75, Adv. Haer. II. 35. 4, Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[PERSONAL NOTE]: Making alusion to oral teaching or tradition, note how diferen't it is to Basils later ideas.

(IRENAEUS): “...For ( John ), the disciple of our Lord, wishing to put an end to all such ideas (i.e., the doctrines of Cerinthus concerning the Word and of the Gnostics concerning God) and to establish in the Church [Ltn., regula veritatis] that there is One God Almighty, Who made all things ( by ) His Word, things visible and invisible ; and also showing that ( by ) the Word, ( through ) Whom God made the ( creation ), He also bestowed salvation on those who belong to the creation, thus began His teaching in the Gospel : 'In the beginning was the Word...” - (Page , Adv. Haer. III. II. 1, Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...He has a sound faith in One God Almighty, ( of – Whom ) all things are, [1st Cor 8:6] and ( in ) the Son ( of ) God, Jesus Christ our Lord, [Gk., dia Ltn., per “through”] ( by ) Whom are all things, and in His ( Economy ), by which the Son of God ( became ) man ; and has also a firm faith ( in ) the Spirit ( of ) God, Who gives us the knowledge of the truth, Who has expounded the ( dispensation ) – ( of ) the Father and the Son, ( by ) which He dwells in every generation ( according to ) His Father's ( will )...” - (Page , Adv. Haer. IV. 33. 7, Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)

(IRENAEUS): “...THE FATHER is verily ( above ) all, and He is the ( Head of ) Christ, but the Word is ( through ) all things, and He is Himself the ( Head of ) the Church, while the Spirit is ( in ) us all, and He is the ( living – water ) which the Lord ( gave ) to those who believe in Him and love Him and know that there is one Father ( above ) all things and ( through ) all things and ( in ) all things ...” - (Page 106, Adv. Haer. V. 18. 2, Chapter VI, “The Rule Of Faith,” IRENAEUS OF LUGDUNUM – A STUDY OF HIS TEACHING By F. R. Montgomery Hitchcock 1914.)
[FOOTNOTE]: In IV. 31. 2, he speaks of the Word of God as Ltn., ( pater generis humani ).

SAMPLES IN IRENAEUS CHRISTOLOGY


LATIN TEXT: “...Per id igitur longe primum eum gigni annuntiavit et dominari eum in gentes...”

(IRENAEUS): “...And again David says: “The Lord said unto my Lord: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool. The rod of thy strength shall the Lord send forth from Sion; and rule thou in the midst of thy enemies. With thee IN THE BEGINNING in the day of thy power, in the brightness of the holy ones: FROM THE WOMB BEFORE THE MORNING-STAR I BEGAT THEE. The Lord sware and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. And the Lord on thy right hand hath broken in pieces kings in the day of wrath: he shall judge among the Gentiles, he shall fill up the ruins, and shall break in pieces the heads of many on the earth? He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head.” Now hereby he PROCLAIMED THAT HE CAME INTO BEING BEFORE ALL, and that He rules over the Gentiles and judges all mankind and the kings who now hate Him and persecute His name; for these are His enemies: and in calling Him God's priest for ever, he declared His immortality. And therefore he said: He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall he lift up the head; proclaiming the exaltation with glory that followed on His humanity and humiliation and ingloriousness.[137]...” - (Chapter 48; Irenaeus, THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE APOSTOLIC PREACHING Translated by J. Armitage Robinson. 1920.)

(IRENAEUS): “...'therefore shall He lift up the head' By this, then, He declared that He CAME INTO BEING LONG BEFORE, and that He rules over nations...” - (Chapter 48; ST. IRENAEUS PROOF OF THE APOSTOLIC PREACHING Translated and Annotated by Joseph P. Smith 1952.)

IRENAEUS (c. 130-200 C.E.): "...Jesus Christ was appointed the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, as being THE FIRST-BEGOTTEN ( IN ) ALL THE CREATION; the Son of God being made the Son of man, that through Him we may receive the adoption..." — (Against Heresies, Book 3, chapter 16; ANF edited by Roberts & Donaldson)

SAMPLES OF IRENAEUS CHRISTOLOGY


(IRENAEUS): “...This,[98.] beloved, is the preaching of the truth, and this is the [Ltn., modus redemptionis nostrae] manner of our redemption, and this is the way of life, which the prophets proclaimed, and Christ established, and the apostles delivered, and the Church in all the world hands on to her children. This must we keep with all certainty, with a sound will and pleasing to God, with good works and right-willed disposition. [99.] SO THAT NONE SHOULD IMAGINE GOD THE FATHER TO BE OTHER THAN OUR CREATOR, as the heretics imagine; (for) they despise [Ltn., Ens In-creatum Deum] THE GOD WHO IS, AND MAKE GODS OF THAT WHICH IS NOT; and they fashion A FATHER OF THEIR OWN ABOVE OUR CREATOR, and imagine that they have found out for themselves something greater than the truth. For all these are impious and blasphemers against their Creator and against THE FATHER, as we have shown in the “Exposure & Overthrow Of Knowledge Falsely So-Called.” And others again reject the [Ltn., adventum] coming of the Son of God and the [Ltn., mysterium] dispensation of His incarnation, which the apostles delivered and the prophets declared beforehand, even such as should be the summing up of mankind, as we have shown you in brief: and such also are reckoned amongst those who are lacking in faith. And others receive not the gifts of the Holy Spirit, and cast away from themselves the prophetic grace, watered whereby man bears the fruit of life unto God: and these are they of whom Isaiah speaks: For they shall be, saith he, as an oak that is stripped of leaves, and as a garden that hath no water.[275] And such are in no wise serviceable to God, seeing that they cannot bear any fruit. [100.] So then in respect of [Ltn., tria capita signi] ( the - three – points )[276] ( of - our - seal ) error has strayed widely from the truth. For either they reject the Father, or they accept not the Son and speak against the dispensation of His incarnation; or else they receive not the Spirit, that is, they reject prophecy. And of all such must we beware, and shun their ways, if in very truth we desire to be well-pleasing to God and to attain the redemption that is from Him...” - (Chapters 98, 99, 100; Irenaeus, THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE APOSTOLIC PREACHING Translated by J. Armitage Robinson. 1920.)
[FOOTNOTE 274]: Lit. " with the formation (plasma) of God."
[FOOTNOTE 275]: Isa. i. 30.
[FOOTNOTE 276]: Lit. "heads": cf. cc. 6f.[Chapter on Three Points and Rank of Faith]

(IRENAEUS): “...This [98.] is the beloved ( preaching of the truth ) and this is [Ltn., modus redemptionis nostrae] ( the plan of our salvation ) and ( the way of life ) which the prophets foretold and Christ established and the Apostles delivered to us and the Church gives to its children in all the world; which it is necessary to keep with great care being of sound mind and well pleasing to God, with good works and a sound character. [99.] ONE MUST ( NOT ) THINK THERE IS ANOTHER GOD THE FATHER THAN ( OUR ) CREATOR, AS THE HERETICS THINK. [Ltn., Ens In-creatum Deum] The ( Existing ) God they dispise and they make an idol of that which is not and they ( create ) for themselves a father higher than ( our ) Creator, and so they think they have found something greater than the truth. They all are ungodly and blasphemers of their ( Creator and Father ), as we have showed in ( our ) book: “A Refutation & Subversion Of Knowledge Falsely So-Called”. And others again reject the [Ltn., adventum] ( coming ) of the Son of God and the [Ltn., mysterium] dispensation of his Incarnation, which the Apostles delivered and the prophets foretold that ( by ) it mankind might find ( renovation ), as we have briefly shown you. And such ones must be counted weak in the faith. And others do not acknowledge the ( gifts – of ) the Holy Spirit and cast from themselves ( the prophetic grace ) by which man is ( watered and bears fruit ) in life to God. And these are they of whom Isaiah speaks: “For they shall be like a terebinth whose leaf fadeth and as a garden which has ( no – water ).” and such are of no use to God, for they can bear no fruit. [100.] But error concerning [Ltn., tria capita signi] the ( three – headings ) of our seal ( baptism ) leads many astray from the truth, for they - either - despise ( THE FATHER ) - or - reject ( THE SON ) and speak against the dispensation of his incarnation, - or - they do not receive ( THE HOLY SPIRIT ), that is, they ( despise – prophecies ). And we must be wary of all such and avoid their character, if we truly wish to be well pleasing to God and obtain salvation from Him...” - (Page 85/86; Chapters 98,99,100; ST. IRENAEUS - [Εἰς ἐπίδειξιν τοῦ ἀποστολικοῦ κηρύγματος ] THE PROOF OF APOSTOLIC PREACHING WITH SEVEN FRAGMENTS ARMENIAN VERSION EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY HIS LORDSHIP THE BISHOP KARAPET TER MEKERTTSCHIAN AND THE REV. DR. S. G. WILSON WITH THE CO-OPERATION OF H. R. H. PRINCE MAXE OF SAXONY D. D. AND D. C. L.)

(IRENAEUS): “...This [98.] beloved, is the preaching of the truth, and this is the manner of our slavation, and this is the way of life, announced by the prophets and ratified by Christ and handed over by the Apostles and handed down by the Church in the whole world to her children. This must be kept in all security, with good will, and by being well-pleasing to God through good works and sound moral character. [99.] AND NOW LET NONE THINK THAT THERE IS ANY OTHER GOD THE FATHER THAN OUR MAKER, AS THE HERETICS THINK; THEY DESPISE THE ( REAL ) GOD and make an idol of some ( unreal ) one, and ( create ) for themselves a ( father ) superior to ( our ) Creator, and think they have found on their own account something greater than the truth. For they are all wicked men and blasphemers against their Creator and ( Father ), as we have shown in the “Exposure & Over-Throw Of Knowledge Falsely So-Called.” And others again despise the coming of the Son of God and the dispensation of His incarnation, which the Apostles have transmitted to us, and which the prophets foretold would be the summing-up of humanity, as we have shown you in brief. And such people too should be counted among un-believers. And others do not admit the gifts of the holy spirit, and reject from themselves the charism of prophecy, being watered whereby, man bears fruit of life to God. And those are the ones spoken of by Isaias; “for they shall be,” he says, “as a leafless terebinth, and as a garden without water.” And such men are of no use to God, in that they can bear no fuit. [100.] So error with respect to ( the three articles of our seal ) has brought about much wandering away from the truth.[405] For either they despise the Father, or they do not accept the Son, they speak against the dispensation of His incarnation, or they do not accept the spirit, that is, they reject prophecy. And we must beware of all such men, and flee their ways, if we really desire to be well-pleasing to God and receive from Him salvation...” - (Pages 108, 109; Chapter 98, 99, 100; ST. IRENAEUS PROOF OF THE APOSTOLIC PREACHING Translated and Annotated by Joseph P. Smith 1952.)
[FOOTNOTE 405]: “Our seal” being our baptism.


JUSTIN MARTYRS ASCENDING & DESCENDING RANK vs COUNTERFIET EQUALATERAL TRIAD

Many times I hve seen this same quotation on the internet.


JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-165 C.E.): "...We reasonably worship [Jesus Christ], having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third..." - (First Apology Chapter 13 Translated by Marcus Dods and George Reith. From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1. Edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.)


The main point Trinitarians make about this is that Jesus is supposedly “...worship[ed]...” in Second Place somehow making him a co-equal, co-eternal, co-all-mighty three-in-one-person Tri[3]ad in this quotation from Justin Martyrs 1st Apology Chapter 13.

Unfortunately this whole position of his is based upon a biased and perhaps deliberate misstranslation by Tri[3]nitarian translators.

The honest truth of the matter is that the common Greek word for “...worship...” is not in this text at all - when referring to Jesus Christ or the holy spirit.

This is easily proven when compared with other translations and when compared with both the Latin & Greek originals.

Below I will give:

  1. The Latin text which is not as authoritive or as old as the Greek version.
  2. The Greek text itself.
  3. Three other more accurate translations of the same text and some of the context.
  4. Dictionary definitions of key words in the Greek & Latin.

The real truth of the matter is that Justin teaches Jesus is to be “...HONOURED...” in "...SECOND PLACE...” and “...RANK...” - “...AFTER...” the Father.

The holy spirit is in third “...THIRD RANK...”

NOT ON AN EQUALITY!

Justin probablly couldn't have used much more explicit language to show Jesus and the holy spirit are not “...held...” on an equality with the “...Real Maker...” the Father.

LATIN TEXT: “...Nostrum autem harum rerum doctorem, natum ad hoc munus Jesum Christum, ac sub Pontio Pilato, Judaeae, temporibus Tiberii Caesaris, praeside crucifixum, veri Dei Filium esse edocti, ipsumque ( secundo loco ), Spiritum autem propheticum ( tertio habentes ordine ), non sine ratione a nobis coli demonstrabimus. Hoc enim ( loco ) insaniae nos accusant, ( post ) immutabilem et sempiternum et Patrem omnium Deum homini crucifixo alterum locum a nobis dictitantes deferri, mysterium hujus rei ignorantes, quod dum exponimus, ut attente a[u]diatis[*] hortamur...” - (Page 11, Justin Martyr 1st Apol. Chapter 13; MPL)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Printed text illegible. Possibly “a[n]diatis”. Either ( u ) or ( n ) print unclear.
[PERSONAL NOTE 1]: ( Secundo ) the Latin equivalent of ( δευτέραν ) is missing in reference to ( δευτέραν χώραν μετὰ ) “...second place after...” etc. It appears to just read “...loco … post...” or “...a place after...” dropping the “...second...” which is in the Greek.
[PERSONAL NOTE 2]: The Latin also has added a reference to the Father in this place. “... immutabilem et sempiternum et Patrem omnium Deum...”

GREEK TEXT: “...τὸν διδάσκαλόν τε τούτων γενόμενον ἡμῖν καὶ εἰς τοῦτο γεννηθέντα Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν σταυρωθέντα ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου, τοῦ γενομένου ἐν Ἰουδαίᾳ ἐπὶ χρόνοις Τιβερίου Καίσαρος ἐπιτρόπου, υἱὸν αὐτοῦ τοῦ ὄντως θεοῦ μαθόντες καὶ ἐν δευτέρᾳ χώρᾳ ἔχοντες, πνεῦμά τε προφητικὸν ἐν τρίτῃ τάξει ὅτι μετὰ λόγου τιμῶμεν ἀποδείξομεν. ἐνταῦθα γὰρ μανίαν ἡμῶν καταφαίνονται, δευτέραν χώραν μετὰ τὸν ἄτρεπτον καὶ ἀεὶ ὄντα θεὸν καὶ γεννήτορα τῶν ἁπάντων ἀνθρώπῳ σταυρωθέντι διδόναι ἡμᾶς λέγοντες, ἀγνοοῦντες τὸ ἐν τούτῳ μυστήριον, ᾧ προσέχειν ὑμᾶς ἐξηγουμένων ἡμῶν προτρεπόμεθα. ...” - (1st Apology Chapter 13, MPG)


JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...It is Jesus Christ who has taught us these things, having been born for this purpose and crucified under Pontius Pilate, who was procurator in Judea in the time of Tiberius Caesar. We will show that we [ λόγου τιμῶμεν ] ( HONOUR ) HIM IN ACCORDANCE WITH REASON, having learned that he is the Son of the true God himself, and holding him to be in the SECOND [ χώρᾳ ] ( PLACE ) and the prophetic Spirit in the THIRD [ τάξει ] ( RANK ). It is for this that they charge us with madness, saying that we give the SECOND [ χώραν ] ( PLACE ) [ μετὰ ] ( AFTER ) the unchanging and ever-existing God and begetter of all things to a crucified man, not knowing the mystery involved in this, to which we ask you to give your attention as we expound it...” - (1st Apology Chapter 13, Volume I. Early Christian Fathers. Editor: Cyril C. Richardson, Washburn Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. THE LIBRARY OF CHRISTIAN CLASSICS)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...Again we have learned, that he, who taught us these things and for this end was born, even Jesus Christ – was the Son of him who is truly God ; and we ( ESTEEM ) him in second ( PLACE ). And that we with reason ( HONOUR ) the prophetic spirit, in third ( PLACE ), we shall hereafter show. For upon this point they accuse us of madness, saying that we give THE SECOND PLACE ( AFTER ) the unchangable and eternal God, the Creator of all things, to a man who was crucified ; (and this they do) being ignorant of the mystery which is in this matter ; to which we exhort you to take heed while we explain it...” - (1st Apology Chapter 13, Page 153; A Translation of the Epistles of Clement of Rome, Polycarp, and Ignatius; and of the Apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian: With an Introduction and Brief Notes Illustrative of the Ecclesiastical History of the First Two Centuries. Second Edition. By the Rev. Temple Chevallier, B. D., Published 1851 by Francis & John Rivington, John Deighton in London, Cambridge.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...And that we with reason ( HONOUR ) Jesus Christ, our Teacher of these things, and born for this end ( who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the time of Tiberius Caesar), receiving him as the Son of the True God, and holding him in the second ( PLACE ), and the prophetic Spirit in the third ( RANK ), I shall show. Hence we are accused of madness ; because, as they say, we assign the second ( PLACE – AFTER ) the Immutable and Eternal God, the Creator of all things, to a crucified man...” - (Page 53, Justin Martyr 1st Apol. Chapter 13, THE CHURCH FIRST THREE CENTURIES: OR, NOTICES OF THE LIVES AND OPINIONS OF SOME OF THE EARLY FATHERS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY; ILLUSTRATING ITS LATE ORIGIN AND GRADUAL FORMATION. By ALVAN LAMSON, D.D. 1875.)

ōrdō inis, m
1 ”...a row, line, series, order, rank...”
Lewis, Charlton, T. An Elementary Latin Dictionary. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago. American Book Company. 1890.

post
I. Adv.
A. Of place, behind, back, backwards (class.): ...
B. Of time, afterwards, after: ...
II. Prep. with acc., behind.
A. Of place:
2. Trop., beneath, inferior to, less important than:
B. Of time, after, since: ...
C. Transf., besides, except: ...
A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1879.

lŏcus [loco]
I. v. infra), a place, spot.
I. Lit.
B. In partic.
1. A place, seat, in the theatre, the circus, or the forum:
2. So of the lodging, quarters, place of abode assigned to foreign ambassadors for their residence:
3. A piece or part of an estate:
4. A place, spot, locality; a country region:
5. In war or battle, a post, station
6. Loci and loca, of parts of the body:
7. Communis locus,
(a). The place of the dead:
(b). A public place:
II. Trop.
A. A topic of discussion or thought; a matter, subject, point, head or division of a subject.
2. Esp.: loci, the grounds of proof, the points on which proofs are founded or from which they are deduced:
3. Esp.: loci communes, general arguments, which do not grow out of the particular facts of a case, but are applicable to any class of cases:
B. A passage in a book or author;
C. Room, opportunity, cause, occasion, place, time, etc., for any thing: r
D. In aliquo loco esse, to be in any place, position, situation, condition, state, relation:
E. Place, position, degree, rank, order, office, of persons or things:
F. Loco, adverbially, in the place of, instead of, for:
A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1879.

τιμάω τιμή
I. to pay honour to, hold in honour, to honour, revere, reverence, Hom., Hdt., attic:— absol. to bestow honours, Dem.:—hence, simply, to reward, Hdt., Xen.:—Pass. to be honoured, held in honour, id=Hdt.; c. gen. rei, τιμῆς τετιμῆσθαι to be held worthy of honour, Il.
II. of things, to hold in honour, value, prize, Pind., Eur.:—also = προτιμάω, to prefer, Aesch.
2. c. gen. pretii, to estimate, value or assess at a certain price, Thuc.:—so in Mid., Xen., etc.
3. rarely, to give as an honour, Pind., Soph.
III. as attic law-term:
1. in Act., of the judge, to estimate the amount of punishment due to the criminals, award the penalty, Lat. litem aestimare, Plat.; τ. τὴν μακράν τινι to award him the long line, i. e. sentence of death, Ar.; absol., τιμᾶν βλέπω I carry penalty in my eyes, id=Ar.:—the sentence awarded in gen., τ. τινί θανάτου (sc. δίκην) to give sentence of death against a man, i. e. to condemn him to death, Plat., Dem.; τίνος τιμήσειν αὐτῶι προσδοκᾶις τὸ δικαστήριον; at what do you expect the court to fix his penalty? Dem.:—Pass., τιμᾶσθαι ἀργυρίου to be condemned to a fine, τινος for a thing, Lex ap. Dem., etc.
2. Mid., of the parties before the court (cf. τίμημα 2),
a. of the accuser, τιμᾶταί μοι ὁ ἀνὴρ θανάτου (sc. τὴν δίκην) he estimates the penalty due to me at death (gen. pretii), Plat., etc.
b. of the person accused, τιμήσεσθαι τοιούτου τινὸς ἐμαυτῶι to estimate the penalty due to me at so high a rate, id=Plat.
c. with acc. of the penalty or offence, πέντε μυριάδων τιμησάμενος τὴν δίκην Plut., etc.
Liddell and Scott. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1889.

τάξις , εως, Ion. ιος, h(, (τάσσω)
A. arranging, arrangement:
I. in military sense: 1. drawing up in rank and file, order or disposition of an army, ...
II. generally, arrangement, order, ...
III. metaph. from 1.5, post, rank, position, station, ...
IV. order, class of men, ...
Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by. Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940.

χώρα , Ion. χώρη , h(,
A. = χῶρος, space or room in which a thing is, defined as partly occupied space,
2. generally, place, spot, ...
3. the position, proper place of a person or thing, “ἐνὶ χώρῃ ἕζεται” Il.23.349: esp. a soldier's post, ...
4. metaph., station, place, position, ἐν χώρᾳ τινὸς εἶναι to be in his position, be counted the same as he is, ἐν ἀνδραπόδων or μισθοφόρου χώρᾳ εἶναι to be in the position of slaves or mercenaries, to pass or rank as such, X.An.5.6.13, Cyr.2.1.18; ἐν οὐδεμιᾷ χ. εἶναι to have no place or rank, be in no esteem, ...
Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by. Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940.

There is no, and cannot be "RANK" in a CO-EQUAL TRI[3]AD OF (PLURAL) ALL-MIGHT-(IES).

ALL THREE would have to be in FIRST PLACE & RANK to share EQUAL glory and perfect equality.

If any one of the three is in lower RANK - that is - "...second after..." or "...third rank..." and not in FIRST PLACE & RANK -

THEY ARE NOT EQUALS.

Simple.

No Trinity here.