Monday, October 22, 2012

PHILO JUDAEUS ON GENESIS 1:26 “...LET ( US ) MAKE...” AND GENESIS 11:7 “...LET ( US ) GO DOWN...” AND GENESIS 48:16 “...THE ( ANGEL ) THAT SAVES ME...”!

GREEK TEXT: “...Μόνος [178.] δὲ σχεδὸν ἐκ πάντων ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθῶν καὶ κακῶν ἔχων ἐπιστήμην αἱρεῖται μὲν πολλάκις τὰ φαυλότατα, φεύγει δὲ τὰ σπουδῆς ἄξια, ὥστ’ αὐτὸν μάλιστα ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐκ προνοίας ἁμαρτήμασι καταγινώσκεσθαι. [179.] προσηκόντως οὖν τὴν τούτου κατασκευὴν ὁ θεὸς περιῆψε καὶ τοῖς ὑπάρχοις αὐτοῦ λέγων· “ποιήσωμεν ἄνθρωπον”, ἵνα αἱ μὲν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου κατορθώσεις ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀναφέρωνται μόνον, ἐπ’ ἄλλους δὲ αἱ ἁμαρτίαι. θεῷ γὰρ τῷ πανηγεμόνι ἐμπρεπὲς οὐκ ἔδοξεν εἶναι τὴν ἐπὶ κακίαν ὁδὸν ἐν ψυχῇ λογικῇ δι’ ἑαυτοῦ δημιουργῆσαι· οὗ χάριν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτὸν ἐπέτρεψε τὴν τούτου τοῦ μέρους κατασκευήν. ἔδει γὰρ καὶ τὸ ἀντίπαλον τῷ ἀκουσίῳ, τὸ ἑκούσιον, εἰς τὴν τοῦ παντὸς συμπλήρωσιν κατασκευασθὲν ἀναδειχθῆναι...” - (Chapter 35:178-179, “ΠΕΡΙ ΣΥΓΧΥΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΑΛΕΚΤΩΝ,” “De Confusione Linguarum,” (ed. P. Wendland, post R. Khazarzar) Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2. Berlin: Reimer, (repr. De Gruyter, 1962), pp. 229–267. 1897.)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E-50 C.E.): “…Man is practically the only ( being ) who having knowledge of good and evil often chooses the worst […] Thus it was meet and right that ( when man was formed ), GOD SHOULD ( ASSIGN A SHARE ) IN THE WORK ( TO HIS LIEUTENANTS ), ( as He does ) with the words: “Let ( Us ) make man...” - (Chapter 35:178-179, “On the Confusion of Tongues,” on Page 229, “The Messenger of the Lord in Early Jewish Interpretations of Genesis,” By Camilla Hélena von Heijne 2010.)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E-50 C.E.): “…[178.] But man is almost the only one of all living things which, having a thorough knowledge of good and evil, often chooses that which is worst, and rejects those things which are worthy of earnest pursuit, so that he is often most justly condemned as being guilty of deliberate and studied crime. [179.] VERY APPROPRIATELY THEREFORE HAS GOD ATTRIBUTED THE CREATION OF THIS BEING, MAN, TO HIS LIEUTENANTS, SAYING, “LET US MAKE MAN,” in order that the successes of the intellect may be attributed to him alone, but the errors of the being thus created, TO HIS SUBORDINATE POWER: for it did not appear to be suitable to the dignity of God, the ruler of the universe, to make the road to wickedness in a rational soul by his own agency; FOR WHICH REASON HE HAS COMMITTED TO THOSE ABOUT HIM THE CREATION OF this portion of the universe; for it was necessary that the voluntary principle, as the counterpoise to the involuntary principle, should be established and made known, with a view to the completion and perfection of the universe...” - (Chapter 35:178-179, “De Confusione Linguarum,” “The Works of Philo Judaeus, The contemporary of Josephus, translated from the Greek,” By Charles Duke Yonge, London, H. G. Bohn, 1854-1890.)

Gk., ( τοῖς ὑπάρχοις αὐτοῦ ) “...those subordinate-commanders of His...”

Or: “...those subordinate-govenors of His...”

ὕπαρχ-ος , ὁ,
A. subordinate commander, lieutenant, “ὕ. ἄλλων . . οὐχ ὅλων στρατηγός” S.Aj.1105; “ὕ. ὢν τῷ ἀδελφῷ” Luc.DMort.12.2; “ὑπάρχοις τοῖς ἐμοῖς” E.Hel.1432.
2. subordinate governor, of satraps, etc., Hdt.3.70, 4.166, al., X.An.4.4.4; “Ἰωνίας” Th.8.31; “Ἑλλησποντίων” Sor.Vit.Hippocr.8; in the Seleucid kingdom, OGI225.36 (Didyma, iii B. C.).
b. = Lat.proconsul, Epigr.Gr.906 (Gortyn); = legatus, “ὕ. Αὐτοκράτορος Καίσαρος” Inscr.Prien.247, cf. App.BC5.26, D.C.36.36, al.; ὕ. Αἰγύπτου, = praefectus Aegypti, Arr.An.3.5.7; ὕ. τοῦ ἱεροῦ πραιτωρίου, = praefectus praetorio, IGRom.3.435 (Pisidia), cf. Lyd. Mag.1.14, al., Gloss.; so ὕ. alone, in verse, of the praefectus praetorio Illyrici, IG22.4224 (v A. D.), cf. 4226 (v A. D.), 7.94 (Megara, v. A. D.); ὁ τῆς πόλεως ὕ., = praefectus urbi, Lyd.Mag.1.38, cf. 2.19.
II. subject to one, “τῶν Καρχηδονίων” Plb.7.9.5.

GREEK TEXT: “...τοῦτο [180.] μὲν δὴ ταύτῃ λελέχθω. προσήκει δὲ κἀκεῖνο λελογίσθαι, ὅτι μόνων ἀγαθῶν ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς αἴτιος, κακοῦ δὲ οὐδενὸς τὸ παράπαν, ἐπειδὴ καὶ τὸ πρεσβύτατον τῶν ὄντων καὶ τελειότατον ἀγαθὸν αὐτὸς ἦν. ἐμπρεπέστατον δὲ τὰ οἰκεῖα τῇ ἑαυτοῦ φύσει δημιουργεῖν ἄριστα τῷ ἀρίστῳ, τὰς μέντοι κατὰ πονηρῶν κολάσεις διὰ τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτὸν βεβαιοῦσθαι. [181.] μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ καὶ τὸ εἰρημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ τελειωθέντος ἐξ ἀσκήσεως τόδε· “ὁ θεὸς ὁ τρέφων με ἐκ νεότητος, ὁ ἄγγελος ὁ ῥυόμενός με ἐκ πάντων τῶν κακῶν” [Gen. 48:15-16]· ὁμολογεῖ γὰρ καὶ οὗτος ἤδη, ὅτι τὰ μὲν γνήσια τῶν ἀγαθῶν, ἃ φιλαρέτους τρέφει ψυχάς, ἐπὶ θεὸν ἀναφέρεται μόνον ὡς αἴτιον, ἡ δὲ τῶν κακῶν μοῖρα ἀγγέλοις ἐπιτέτραπται πάλιν, οὐδὲ ἐκείνοις ἔχουσι τὴν τοῦ κολάζειν αὐτοκράτορα ἐξουσίαν, ἵνα μηδενὸς τῶν εἰς φθορὰν τεινόντων ἡ σωτήριος αὐτοῦ κατάρχῃ φύσις. [182.] διὸ λέγει· “δεῦτε καὶ καταβάντες συγχέωμεν” [Gen. 11:7]. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἀσεβεῖς τοιαύτης ἐπάξιοι δίκης τυγχάνειν, ἵλεως καὶ εὐεργέτιδας καὶ φιλοδώρους αὐτοῦ δυνάμεις οἰκειοῦσθαι τιμωρίαις. εἰδὼς μέντοι τῷ γένει τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὠφελίμους ὑπαρχούσας δι’ ἑτέρων αὐτὰς ὥρισεν· ἔδει γὰρ τὸ μὲν ἐπανορθώσεως ἀξιωθῆναι, τὰς δὲ πηγὰς τῶν ἀεννάων αὐτοῦ χαρίτων ἀμιγεῖς κακῶν οὐκ ὄντων μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ νομιζομένων φυλαχθῆναι...” - (Chapter 36:180-182, “ΠΕΡΙ ΣΥΓΧΥΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΑΛΕΚΤΩΝ,” “De Confusione Linguarum,” (ed. P. Wendland, post R. Khazarzar) Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2. Berlin: Reimer, (repr. De Gruyter, 1962), pp. 229–267. 1897.)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E-50 C.E.): “...God is ( the cause ) of good things ( only ) and of nothing at all that is bad, since ( He Himself ) was the most ancient of being(s) and the good in its most perfect form […] but that the chastisement of the wicked SHOULD BE ASSURED --- ( THROUGH ) --- ( HIS UNDER-LINGS ). My thoughts are attested also by the words of him [Jacob] who was made perfect through practice: “( The God ) who nourished me from my youth, ( THE ANGEL WHO SAVEST ) ME from all evils […] For he, too, hereby confesses that the truly good gifts, which nourish virtue-loving souls, are referred ( to God alone as their cause ), --- but --- on the other hand --- the province of things evil HAS BEEN ( COMMITTED TO ANGELS ) […] Therefore he says: “Come and let ( Us ) go down and confound them.”{457} The impious indeed deserve to have it as their punishment, that God's beneficient and merciful and bountiful ( powers ) should be brought in association with works of vengeance. Yet, though knowing that punishment was salutary for the human race, HE ( DECREED THAT ) IT SHOULD BE EXACTED ( BY OTHERS ){458}...” - (Chapter 36:180-182 “On the Confusion of Tongues,” on Page 229, “The Messenger of the Lord in Early Jewish Interpretations of Genesis,” By Camilla Hélena von Heijne 2010.)
[FOOTNOTE 457]: The referrence is to Gen. 11:7.

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E-50 C.E.): “…And [180.] this may be enough to say in this manner; and it is right that this point also should be considered, namely that God is ( the cause ) only of what is good but is absolutely the cause of no evil whatever, since ( he himself is the most ancient of all existing things, and the most perfect of all goods ); and it is most natural and becoming that he should do what is most akin to his own nature, that is to say, that the best of all being(s) should be ( the cause of ) all the best things, but that the punishments appointed for the wicked are inflicted ( BY THE MEANS OF ) --- HIS --- ( SUBORDINATE MINISTERS ). [181.] And there is an evidence in favour of this assertion of mine in this expression, which was uttered by the man who was made perfect by practice; “The God who nourished me from my youth up, ( THE ANGEL ) WHO DEFENDED ME FROM ALL EVILS,” [Gen. 48:15-16] for by this words he already confesses that those genuine good things which nourish the souls which love virtue, are referred to God as their sole cause; but the fate of the wicked is, on the other hand, REFERRED TO ( THE ANGELS ), and even they have not independent and absolute power of inflicting punishment, that this salutary nature may not afford an opportunity to any one of the things which tend to destruction. [182.] For this reason God says, “Come, let ( Us ) go down and confuse,” [Gen. 11:7.] for the wicked, deserving to meet with such punishment as this, that the merciful, and beneficent, and bounteous, powers of God should become known to them chiefly by its inflictions. Knowing therefore that these powers are beneficial to the race of man, he has appointed the punishments to be inflicted ( BY OTHER BEINGS ); for it was expedient that he himself should be looked upon as the cause of well-doing, but in such a way that the fountains of his everlasting graces should be kept unmingled with any evils, not merely with those that are really evils, but even with those which are accounted such...” - (Chapter , “De Confusione Linguarum,” “The Works of Philo Judaeus, The contemporary of Josephus, translated from the Greek,” By Charles Duke Yonge, London, H. G. Bohn, 1854-1890.)

Gk., ( διὰ τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτὸν ) “...through the intermediate agency of those inferior to Him/Himself...”

Or: “...through the intermediate agency of those under Him/Himself...”

Or: “...through the intermediate agency of those subordinate to Him/Himself...”

Gk., ( ὁ ἄγγελος ὁ ῥυόμενός με ἐκ πάντων τῶν κακῶν ) “...the Angel, the one delivering me from out of all of the evils...”

Gk., ( ἀγγέλοις ) “...Angels...”

Gk., ( δι’ ἑτέρων ) “...through the intermediate agency of a number of others of a different kind and quality...”

For those who feel they need to see the full context:

GREEK TEXT: “...Σκέψασθαι [33:168.] δ’ οὐ παρέργως ἄξιον, τίν’ ἔχει λόγον τὸ εἰρημένον ἐκ προσώπου τοῦ θεοῦ· “δεῦτε καὶ καταβάντες συγχέωμεν ἐκεῖ αὐτῶν τὴν γλῶτταν” [Gen.11:7.] φαίνεται γὰρ διαλεγόμενός τισιν ὡς ἂν συνεργοῖς αὐτοῦ, τὸ δ’ αὐτὸ καὶ πρότερον ἐπὶ τῆς τἀνθρώπου κατασκευῆς ἀναγέγραπται· [169.] “εἶπε” γάρ φησι “κύριος ὁ θεός· ποιήσωμεν ἄνθρωπον κατ’ εἰκόνα ἡμετέραν καὶ καθ’ ὁμοίωσιν” [Gen. 1:26] τοῦ “ποιήσωμεν” πλῆθος ἐμφαίνοντος· καὶ πάλιν “εἶπεν ὁ θεός· ἰδού, γέγονεν Ἀδὰμ ὡς εἷς ἡμῶν, τῷ γινώσκειν καλὸν καὶ πονηρόν” [Gen. 3:22]· τὸ γὰρ “ὡς εἷς ἡμῶν” οὐκ ἐφ’ ἑνός, ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ πλειόνων τίθεται. [170.] λεκτέον οὖν ἐκεῖνο πρῶτον, ὅτι οὐδὲν τῶν ὄντων ἰσότιμον ὑφέστηκε θεῷ, ἀλλ’ ἔστιν εἷς ἄρχων καὶ ἡγεμὼν καὶ βασιλεύς, ᾧ πρυτανεύειν καὶ διοικεῖν μόνῳ θέμις τὰ σύμπαντα. τὸ γὰρ οὐκ ἀγαθὸν πολυκοιρανίη, εἷς κοίρανος ἔστω, εἷς βασιλεὺς οὐκ ἐπὶ πόλεων καὶ ἀνθρώπων λέγοιτ’ ἂν ἐν δίκῃ μᾶλλον ἢ ἐπὶ κόσμου καὶ θεοῦ· ἑνὸς γὰρ ἕνα ποιητήν τε καὶ πατέρα πάλιν καὶ δεσπότην ἀναγκαῖον εἶναι. [34:171.] τούτου δὴ προδιομολογηθέντος ἀκόλουθον ἂν εἴη συνυφαίνειν τὰ ἁρμόζοντα. τίν’ οὖν ἐστι, σκοπῶμεν· εἷς ὢν ὁ θεὸς ἀμυθήτους περὶ αὑτὸν ἔχει δυνάμεις ἀρωγοὺς καὶ σωτηρίους τοῦ γενομένου πάσας, αἷς ἐμφέρονται καὶ αἱ κολαστήριοι· ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ κόλασις οὐκ ἐπιζήμιον, ἁμαρτημάτων οὖσα κώλυσις καὶ ἐπανόρθωσις. [172.] διὰ τούτων τῶν δυνάμεων ὁ ἀσώματος καὶ νοητὸς ἐπάγη κόσμος, τὸ τοῦ φαινομένου τοῦδε ἀρχέτυπον, ἰδέαις ἀοράτοις συσταθείς, ὥσπερ οὗτος σώμασιν ὁρατοῖς. [173.] καταπλαγέντες οὖν τινες τὴν ἑκατέρου τῶν κόσμων φύσιν οὐ μόνον ὅλους ἐξεθείωσαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ κάλλιστα τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς μερῶν, ἥλιον καὶ σελήνην καὶ τὸν σύμπαντα οὐρανόν, ἅπερ οὐδὲν αἰδεσθέντες θεοὺς ἐκάλεσαν. ὧν τὴν ἀπόνοιαν κατιδὼν Μωυσῆς φησι· “κύριε, κύριε, βασιλεῦ τῶν θεῶν” [Deut. 10:17] <εἰς> ἔνδειξιν τῆς παρ’ ὑπηκόους ἄρχοντος διαφορᾶς. [174.] ἔστι δὲ καὶ κατὰ τὸν ἀέρα ψυχῶν ἀσωμάτων ἱερώτατος χορὸς ὀπαδὸς τῶν οὐρανίων· ἀγγέλους τὰς ψυχὰς ταύτας εἴωθε καλεῖν ὁ θεσπιῳδὸς λόγος· πάντ’ οὖν τὸν στρατὸν ἑκάστων ἐν ταῖς ἁρμοττούσαις διακεκοσμημένον τάξεσιν ὑπηρέτην καὶ θεραπευτὴν εἶναι συμβέβηκε τοῦ διακοσμήσαντος ἡγεμόνος, ᾧ ταξιαρχοῦντι κατὰ δίκην καὶ θεσμὸν ἕπεται· λιποταξίου γὰρ οὐ θέμις ἁλῶναί ποτε τὸ θεῖον στράτευμα. [175.] βασιλεῖ δὲ ταῖς ἑαυτοῦ δυνάμεσιν ἐμπρεπὲς ὁμιλεῖν τε καὶ χρῆσθαι πρὸς τὰς τῶν τοιούτων πραγμάτων ὑπηρεσίας, οἷσπερ ἁρμόττει μὴ ὑπὸ μόνου πήγνυσθαι θεοῦ. χρεῖος μὲν γὰρ οὐδενός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ παντὸς πατήρ, ὡς δεῖσθαι τῆς ἀφ’ ἑτέρων, εἰ ἐθέλοι δημιουργῆσαι, <συμπράξεως>, τὸ δὲ πρέπον ὁρῶν ἑαυτῷ τε καὶ τοῖς γινομένοις ταῖς ὑπηκόοις δυνάμεσιν ἔστιν ἃ διαπλάττειν ἐφῆκεν, οὐδὲ ταύταις εἰσάπαν αὐτοκράτορα δοὺς τοῦ τελεσιουργεῖν ἐπιστήμην, ἵνα μή τι πλημμεληθείη τῶν ἀφικνουμένων εἰς γένεσιν. [35:176.] ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἀναγκαῖον ἦν προτυπῶσαι· ὧν δὲ χάριν, ἤδη λεκτέον· ἡ μὲν φύσις τῶν ζῴων εἴς τε ἄλογον καὶ λογικὴν μοῖραν, ἐναντίας ἀλλήλαις, ἐτμήθη τὸ πρῶτον, ἡ δ’ αὖ λογικὴ πάλιν εἴς τε τὸ φθαρτὸν καὶ ἀθάνατον εἶδος, φθαρτὸν μὲν τὸ ἀνθρώπων, ἀθάνατον δὲ τὸ ψυχῶν ἀσωμάτων, αἳ κατά τε ἀέρα καὶ οὐρανὸν περιπολοῦσι. [177.] κακίας δὲ ἀμέτοχοι μέν εἰσιν αὗται, τὸν ἀκήρατον καὶ εὐδαίμονα κλῆρον ἐξ ἀρχῆς λαχοῦσαι καὶ τῷ συμφορῶν ἀνηνύτων οὐκ ἐνδεθεῖσαι χωρίῳ, σώματι, ἀμέτοχοι δὲ καὶ <αἱ> τῶν ἀλόγων, παρόσον ἀμοιροῦσαι διανοίας οὐδὲ τῶν ἐκ λογισμοῦ συμβαινόντων ἑκουσίων ἀδικημάτων ἁλίσκονται. [178.] μόνος δὲ σχεδὸν ἐκ πάντων ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθῶν καὶ κακῶν ἔχων ἐπιστήμην αἱρεῖται μὲν πολλάκις τὰ φαυλότατα, φεύγει δὲ τὰ σπουδῆς ἄξια, ὥστ’ αὐτὸν μάλιστα ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐκ προνοίας ἁμαρτήμασι καταγινώσκεσθαι. [179.] προσηκόντως οὖν τὴν τούτου κατασκευὴν ὁ θεὸς περιῆψε καὶ τοῖς ὑπάρχοις αὐτοῦ λέγων· “ποιήσωμεν ἄνθρωπον”, ἵνα αἱ μὲν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου κατορθώσεις ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀναφέρωνται μόνον, ἐπ’ ἄλλους δὲ αἱ ἁμαρτίαι. θεῷ γὰρ τῷ πανηγεμόνι ἐμπρεπὲς οὐκ ἔδοξεν εἶναι τὴν ἐπὶ κακίαν ὁδὸν ἐν ψυχῇ λογικῇ δι’ ἑαυτοῦ δημιουργῆσαι· οὗ χάριν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτὸν ἐπέτρεψε τὴν τούτου τοῦ μέρους κατασκευήν. ἔδει γὰρ καὶ τὸ ἀντίπαλον τῷ ἀκουσίῳ, τὸ ἑκούσιον, εἰς τὴν τοῦ παντὸς συμπλήρωσιν κατασκευασθὲν ἀναδειχθῆναι. [36:180.] τοῦτο μὲν δὴ ταύτῃ λελέχθω. προσήκει δὲ κἀκεῖνο λελογίσθαι, ὅτι μόνων ἀγαθῶν ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς αἴτιος, κακοῦ δὲ οὐδενὸς τὸ παράπαν, ἐπειδὴ καὶ τὸ πρεσβύτατον τῶν ὄντων καὶ τελειότατον ἀγαθὸν αὐτὸς ἦν. ἐμπρεπέστατον δὲ τὰ οἰκεῖα τῇ ἑαυτοῦ φύσει δημιουργεῖν ἄριστα τῷ ἀρίστῳ, τὰς μέντοι κατὰ πονηρῶν κολάσεις διὰ τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτὸν βεβαιοῦσθαι. [181.] μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ καὶ τὸ εἰρημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ τελειωθέντος ἐξ ἀσκήσεως τόδε· “ὁ θεὸς ὁ τρέφων με ἐκ νεότητος, ὁ ἄγγελος ὁ ῥυόμενός με ἐκ πάντων τῶν κακῶν” [Gen. 48:15-16]· ὁμολογεῖ γὰρ καὶ οὗτος ἤδη, ὅτι τὰ μὲν γνήσια τῶν ἀγαθῶν, ἃ φιλαρέτους τρέφει ψυχάς, ἐπὶ θεὸν ἀναφέρεται μόνον ὡς αἴτιον, ἡ δὲ τῶν κακῶν μοῖρα ἀγγέλοις ἐπιτέτραπται πάλιν, οὐδὲ ἐκείνοις ἔχουσι τὴν τοῦ κολάζειν αὐτοκράτορα ἐξουσίαν, ἵνα μηδενὸς τῶν εἰς φθορὰν τεινόντων ἡ σωτήριος αὐτοῦ κατάρχῃ φύσις. [182.] διὸ λέγει· “δεῦτε καὶ καταβάντες συγχέωμεν”. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἀσεβεῖς τοιαύτης ἐπάξιοι δίκης τυγχάνειν, ἵλεως καὶ εὐεργέτιδας καὶ φιλοδώρους αὐτοῦ δυνάμεις οἰκειοῦσθαι τιμωρίαις. εἰδὼς μέντοι τῷ γένει τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὠφελίμους ὑπαρχούσας δι’ ἑτέρων αὐτὰς ὥρισεν· ἔδει γὰρ τὸ μὲν ἐπανορθώσεως ἀξιωθῆναι, τὰς δὲ πηγὰς τῶν ἀεννάων αὐτοῦ χαρίτων ἀμιγεῖς κακῶν οὐκ ὄντων μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ νομιζομένων φυλαχθῆναι. [37:183.] Τίς δέ ἐστιν ἡ σύγχυσις, ἐρευνητέον. πῶς οὖν ἐρευνήσομεν; οὕτως, ὥς γ’ ἐμοὶ φαίνεται· πολλάκις οὓς πρότερον οὐκ ᾔδειμεν, ἀπὸ τῶν συγγενῶν καί τινα πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐχόντων ἐμφέρειαν ἐγνωρίσαμεν· οὐκοῦν καὶ πράγματα τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον, ἃ μὴ ῥᾴδιον ἐξ ἑαυτῶν καταλαμβάνεσθαι, δῆλα γένοιτ’ ἂν κατὰ τὴν τῶν οἰκείων αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότητα. [184.] ίνα οὖν ἐστι συγχύσει πράγματα ὅμοια; ἡ μῖξις, ὥσπερ ὁ παλαιὸς λόγος, καὶ κρᾶσις· ἀλλ’ ἡ μὲν μῖξις ἐν ξηραῖς, ἡ δὲ κρᾶσις ἐν ὑγραῖς οὐσίαις δοκιμάζεται. [185.] μῖξις μὲν οὖν σωμάτων διαφερόντων ἐστὶν οὐκ ἐν κόσμῳ παράθεσις, ὥσπερ ἂν εἴ τις σωρὸν ποιήσειε κριθὰς καὶ πυροὺς καὶ ὀρόβους καὶ ἄλλ’ ἄττα εἴδη τῶν σπαρτῶν εἰς ταὐτὸ εἰσενεγκών, κρᾶσις δ’ οὐ παράθεσις, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἀνομοίων μερῶν εἰς ἄλληλα εἰσδυομένων δι’ ὅλων ἀντιπαρέκτασις, ἔτι δυναμένων ἐπιτεχνήσει τινὶ διακρίνεσθαι τῶν ποιοτήτων, ὡς ἐπὶ οἴνου καὶ ὕδατός φασι γίνεσθαι· [186.] συνελθούσας μὲν γὰρ τὰς οὐσίας ἀποτελεῖν κρᾶσιν, τὸ δὲ κραθὲν οὐδὲν ἧττον ἀναπλοῦσθαι πάλιν εἰς τὰς ἐξ ὧν ἀπετελέσθη ποιότητας· σπόγγῳ γὰρ ἠλαιωμένῳ τὸ μὲν ὕδωρ ἀναλαμβάνεσθαι, τὸν δ’ οἶνον ὑπολείπεσθαι· μήποτε ἐπειδήπερ ἐξ ὕδατος ἡ σπογγιᾶς γένεσίς ἐστι, τὸ μὲν οἰκεῖον, ὕδωρ, πέφυκεν ἀναλαμβάνεσθαι πρὸς αὐτῆς ἐκ τοῦ κράματος, τὸ δ’ ἀλλότριον ὑπολείπεσθαι, ὁ οἶνος. [187.] σύγχυσις δέ ἐστι φθορὰ τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ποιοτήτων πᾶσι τοῖς μέρεσιν ἀντιπαρεκτεινομένων εἰς διαφερούσης μιᾶς γένεσιν, ὡς ἐπὶ τῆς ἐν ἰατρικῇ τετραφαρμάκου συντέτευχε· κηρὸς γὰρ καὶ στέαρ καὶ πίττα ῥητίνη τε, οἶμαι, συνελθόντα ταύτην ἀποτελεῖ, συντεθείσης δὲ ἀμήχανον ἔτι τὰς ἐξ ὧν συνετέθη διακριθῆναι δυνάμεις, ἀλλ’ ἑκάστη μὲν αὐτῶν ἠφάνισται, πασῶν δ’ ἡ φθορὰ μίαν ἐξαίρετον ἄλλην ἐγέννησε δύναμιν. [188.] ὅταν δ’ ἀπειλῇ σύγχυσιν τοῖς ἀσεβέσι λογισμοῖς ὁ θεός, οὐ μόνον ἑκάστης κακίας τό τε εἶδος καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἀφανισθῆναι κελεύει, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ συνερανισθὲν ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἵνα μήτε τὰ μέρη καθ’ ἑαυτὰ μήθ’ ἡ πάντων σύνοδός τε καὶ συμφωνία περιβάληταί τινα ἰσχὺν ἐπὶ καθαιρέσει τῆς ἀμείνονος μοίρας. [189.] οὗ χάριν φησί· “συγχέωμεν ἐκεῖ αὐτῶν τὴν γλῶτταν, ἵνα μὴ ἀκούσωσιν ἕκαστος τὴν φωνὴν τοῦ πλησίον” [Gen. 11:7.], ὅπερ ἴσον ἐστὶ τούτῳ· κωφὸν ἕκαστον ἐργασώμεθα τῶν κακίας μερῶν, ὡς μήτε ἰδίαν ἀφιὲν <φωνὴν> μήτε συνηχοῦν ἑτέρῳ βλάβης αἴτιον γίνηται. [38:190.] ταῦτα μὲν ἡμεῖς, οἱ δὲ τοῖς ἐμφανέσι καὶ προχείροις μόνον ἐπακολουθοῦντες οἴονται νυνὶ γένεσιν διαλέκτων Ἑλληνικῶν τε καὶ βαρβάρων ὑπογράφεσθαι· οὓς οὐκ ἂν αἰτιασάμενος – ἴσως γὰρ ἀληθεῖ καὶ αὐτοὶ χρῶνται λόγῳ – παρακαλέσαιμ’ ἂν μὴ ἐπὶ τούτων στῆναι, μετελθεῖν δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς τροπικὰς ἀποδόσεις, νομίσαντας τὰ μὲν ῥητὰ τῶν χρησμῶν σκιάς τινας ὡσανεὶ σωμάτων εἶναι, τὰς δ’ ἐμφαινομένας δυνάμεις τὰ ὑφεστῶτα ἀληθείᾳ πράγματα. [191.] δίδωσι μέντοι πρὸς τοῦτ’ ἀφορμὰς τὸ εἶδος τοῖς μὴ τυφλοῖς διάνοιαν ὁ νομοθέτης αὐτός, ὥσπερ ἀμέλει καὶ ἐφ’ ὧν νῦν ἐστιν ὁ λόγος· τὸ γὰρ γινόμενον σύγχυσιν προσεῖπε. καίτοι γε εἰ διαλέκτων γένεσιν αὐτὸ μόνον ἐδήλου, κἂν ὄνομα εὐθυβολώτερον ἐπεφήμισεν ἀντὶ συγχύσεως διάκρισιν· οὐ γὰρ συγχεῖται τὰ τεμνόμενα, διακρίνεται δ’ ἔμπαλιν, καὶ ἔστιν οὐ μόνον ἐναντίον ὄνομα ὀνόματι, ἀλλ’ ἔργον ἔργῳ. [192.] σύγχυσις μὲν γάρ, ὡς ἔφην, ἐστὶ φθορὰ τῶν ἁπλῶν δυνάμεων εἰς συμπεφορημένης μιᾶς γένεσιν, διάκρισις δὲ ἑνὸς εἰς πλείω τομή, καθάπερ ἐπὶ γένους καὶ τῶν κατ’ αὐτὸ εἰδῶν ἔχειν συντέτευχεν. ὥστε εἰ μίαν οὖσαν φωνὴν ἐκέλευσε τέμνειν ὁ σοφὸς εἰς πλειόνων διαλέκτων τμήματα, προσεχεστέροις ἂν καὶ κυριωτέροις ἐχρήσατο τοῖς ὀνόμασι, τομὴν ἢ διανέμησιν ἢ διάκρισιν ἤ τι ὁμοιότροπον εἰπών, οὐ τὸ μαχόμενον αὐτοῖς, σύγχυσιν. [193.] ἀλλ’ ἔστιν ἡ σπουδὴ διαλῦσαι τὸ κακίας στῖφος, τὰς ὁμολογίας αὐτῆς ἀκυρῶσαι, τὴν κοινωνίαν ἀνελεῖν, τὰς δυνάμεις ἀφανίσαι καὶ διαφθεῖραι, τὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς κράτος, ὃ δειναῖς ὠχυρώσατο παρανομίαις, καθελεῖν. [194.] οὐχ ὁρᾷς ὅτι καὶ τῶν ψυχῆς ὁ πλάστης μερῶν οὐδὲν οὐδενὶ εἰς τὴν τοῦ ἑτέρου κοινωνίαν ἤγαγεν; ἀλλ’ ὀφθαλμοὶ μὲν οὐκ ἂν ἀκούσειαν, ὦτα δὲ οὐκ ἂν θεάσαιτο, χυλὸς δὲ ἐνστόμιος οὐκ ἂν ὄσφροιτο, οὐδ’ ἂν γεύσαιντο ῥῖνες, ὅ τ’ αὖ λόγος οὐδὲν ἂν τῶν κατὰ τὰς αἰσθήσεις πάθοι, οὐδ’ ἔμπαλιν ῥῆξαι φωνὴν δύναιτ’ ἂν αἴσθησις. [195.] ἔγνω γὰρ ὁ τεχνίτης, ὅτι τὸ μὴ ἀκούειν ἕκαστον τούτων τῆς τοῦ πλησίον φωνῆς λυσιτελές ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν τῆς ψυχῆς μέρη ταῖς οἰκείαις δυνάμεσιν ἀσυγχύτοις χρῆσθαι πρὸς τὴν τῶν ζῴων ὠφέλειαν καὶ τὴν πρὸς ἄλληλα κοινωνίαν ἀφῃρῆσθαι, τὰ δὲ τῆς κακίας εἰς <σύγ>χυσιν καὶ φθορὰν ἀχθῆναι παντελῆ, ἵνα μήτε συμφωνήσαντα μήτε καθ’ ἑαυτὰ ὄντα ζημία τοῖς ἀμείνοσι γένηται. [196.] παρὸ καὶ λέγει· “διέσπειρεν αὐτοὺς κύριος ἐκεῖθεν” [Gen. 11:8.], ἐν ἴσῳ τῷ ἐσκέδασεν, ἐφυγάδευσεν, ἀφανεῖς ἐποίησε· τὸ γὰρ σπείρειν <ἀγαθῶν, κακῶν δὲ αἴτιον τὸ διασπείρειν>, ὅτι τὸ μὲν ἐπιδόσεως καὶ αὐξήσεως καὶ γενέσεως ἑτέρων ἕνεκα συμβαίνει, τὸ δ’ ἀπωλείας καὶ φθορᾶς. βούλεται δὲ ὁ φυτουργὸς θεὸς σπείρειν μὲν ἐν τῷ παντὶ καλοκἀγαθίαν, διασπείρειν δὲ καὶ ἐλαύνειν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου πολιτείας τὴν ἐπάρατον ἀσέβειαν, ἵν’ ἤδη ποτὲ παύσωνται τὴν κακίας πόλιν καὶ τὸν ἀθεότητος πύργον οἰκοδομοῦντες μισάρετοι τρόποι. [197.] τούτων γὰρ σκεδασθέντων οἱ πάλαι πεφευγότες τὴν τυραννίδα τῆς ἀφροσύνης ἑνὶ κηρύγματι κάθοδον εὑρήσουσι, γράψαντός τε καὶ βεβαιώσαντος <θεοῦ> τὸ κήρυγμα, ὡς δηλοῦσιν οἱ χρησμοί, ἐν οἷς διείρηται ὅτι “ἐὰν ᾖ ἡ διασπορά σου ἀπ’ ἄκρου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἕως ἄκρου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐκεῖθεν συνάξει σε” [Deut. 30:4]· [198.] ὥστε τὴν μὲν ἀρετῶν συμφωνίαν ἐμπρεπὲς ἁρμόζεσθαι θεῷ, τὴν δὲ κακιῶν διαλύειν τε καὶ φθείρειν. οἰκειότατον δὲ κακίας ὄνομα σύγχυσις· οὗ πίστις ἐναργὴς πᾶς ἄφρων, λόγοις καὶ βουλαῖς καὶ πράξεσιν ἀδοκίμοις καὶ πεφορημέναις χρώμενος...” - (Chapters 33:168-38:198, “ΠΕΡΙ ΣΥΓΧΥΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΑΛΕΚΤΩΝ,” “De Confusione Linguarum,” (ed. P. Wendland, post R. Khazarzar) Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2. Berlin: Reimer, (repr. De Gruyter, 1962), pp. 229–267. 1897.)

PHILO JUDAEUS (circa. 20 B.C.E-50 C.E.): “…And [33:168] it is worth while to consider in no superficial manner what the meaning of that expression which is put by Moses into the mouth of God: “Come, let ( Us ) go down and confuse their language There.” [Gen. 11:7.] For here God is represented as if he were SPEAKING TO SOME BEINGS WHO WERE HIS CO-ADJUTORS. And the very same idea may be excited by what is said in the account of the creation of the world, [169.] for there, too, Moses records that “the Lord God said, 'Come, let ( Us ) now make man in ( Our ) image; man in ( Our ) Similitude.'” [Gen. 1:26.] The expression, “Let ( Us ) make,” implying a number of creators. And, in another place, we are told that God said, “Behold, the man, Adam, has become as one of ( Us ), in respect of his knowing good and Evil,”[Gen. 3:22.] For the expression, “as one of ( Us ),” is not applicable to one person, but to many. [170.] --- IN THE FIRST PLACE, THEN, --- ( WE MUST ) SAY THIS, --- THAT THERE - IS ( NO ) - EXISTING BEING EQUAL IN HONOR TO GOD, --- BUT --- THERE IS ONE ONLY RULER AND GOVERNOR AND KING, TO WHOM ALONE IT IS GRANTED TO GOVERN AND TO ARRANGE THE UNIVERSE. FOR THE VERSE: “A MULTITUDE OF KINGS IS NEVER GOOD,” “LET THERE ONE SOVEREIGN, ONE SOLE MONARCH BE,” [HOMER'S ILIAD 2.204.] IS NOT MORE JUSTLY SAID WITH RESPECT TO CITIES AND MEN THAN WITH RESPECT TO THE WORLD AND TO GOD; FOR IT IS CLEAR FROM THE NECESSITY OF THINGS THAT THERE MUST BE ONE CREATOR, AND ONE FATHER, AND ONE MASTER OF THE ONE UNIVERSE. [34:171.] This point then being thus granted, it is necessary to convert with it also what follows, so as to adapt it properly. Let us then consider what this is: GOD, BEING ONE, HAS ABOUT HIM AN UNSPEAKABLE NUMBER OF POWERS, ALL OF WHICH ARE DEFENDERS AND PRESERVERS OF EVERY THING THAT IS CREATED; and among THESE POWERS those also which are conversant with punishment are involved. But even punishment is not a disadvantageous thing, inasmuch as it is both a hindrance to and a correction of doing wrong. [172.] Again, IT IS BY MEANS OF THESE POWERS THAT THE INCORPOREAL WORLD, PERCEPTIBLE BY THE INTELLECT, HAS BEEN PUT TOGETHER, which is the archetypal model of this invisible world, BEING COMPOUNDED BY INVISIBLE SPECIES, just as this world is of invisible bodies. [173.] Some persons therefore, admiring exceedingly the nature of both these worlds, have not only deified them in their wholes, but have also deified the most beautiful parts of them, such as the sun and the moon, and the entire heaven, which, having no reverence for anything, they have called gods. BUT MOSES, PERCEIVING THEIR DESIGN, SAYS, “O LORD, LORD, KING OF THE GODS,”[Deut. 10:17.] IN ORDER TO SHOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RULER AND THOSE SUBJECT TO HIM, [174.] And there is also in the air a most sacred company of incorporeal souls as an attendant upon the heavenly souls; for the word of prophecy is accustomed to call these souls ANGELS. It happens therefore that THE WHOLE ARMY OF EACH OF THESE WORLDS, BEING MARSHALLED IN THEIR SUITABLE RANKS, ARE SERVANTS AND MINISTERS OF THE RULER WHO HAS MARSHALLED THEM, WHOM THEY FOLLOW AS THEIR LEADER, in obedience to the principles of law and justice; for it is impossible to suppose that THE DIVINE ARMY can even be detected in desertion. [175.] BUT IT IS SUITABLE TO THE CHARACTER OF THE KING TO ASSOCIATE WITH HIS OWN POWERS, AND TO AVAIL HIMSELF OF THEM, WITH A VIEW TO THEIR MINISTRATIONS IN SUCH MATTERS AS IT IS NOT FITTING SHOULD BE SETTLED BY GOD ALONE, FOR THE FATHER OF THE UNIVERSE HAS NO NEED OF ANYTHING, SO AS TO REQUIRE ASSISTANCE FROM ANY OTHER QUARTER IF HE WISHES TO MAKE ANY THING. BUT SEEING AT ONCE WHAT IS BECOMING, BOTH FOR HIMSELF AND FOR HIS WORKS OF CREATION, THERE ARE SOME THINGS WHICH HE HAS ENTRUSTED TO HIS SUBORDINATE POWERS TO FASHION; and yet he has not at once given even to them completely independent knowledge to enable it to accomplish their objects, in order that no one of those things which come to be created may be found to be erroneously made. [35:176.] These things, then, it was necessary to give an idea of beforehand; but for what reason this was necessary we must now say. The nature of animals was originally divided into the portion endowed with and into that devoid of reason, the two being at variance with one another. Again the rational division was subdivided into the perishable and imperishable species, the perishable species being the race of mankind, and the imperishable species being the company of incorporeal souls which revolve about the air and heaven. [177.] But these have no participation in wickedness, having received from the very beginning an inheritance without stain and full of happiness; and not being bound up in the region of interminable calamities, that is to say, in the body. The divisions also of the irrational part are free from any participation in wickedness, inasmuch as, having no endowment of intellect, they are never convicted of those deliberate acts of wickedness which proceed upon consideration. [178.] But man is almost the only one of all living things which, having a thorough knowledge of good and evil, often chooses that which is worst, and rejects those things which are worthy of earnest pursuit, so that he is often most justly condemned as being guilty of deliberate and studied crime. [179.] VERY APPROPRIATELY THEREFORE HAS GOD ATTRIBUTED THE CREATION OF THIS BEING, MAN, TO HIS LIEUTENANTS, SAYING, “LET US MAKE MAN,” in order that the successes of the intellect may be attributed to him alone, but the errors of the being thus created, to HIS SUBORDINATE POWER: for it did not appear to be suitable to the dignity of God, the ruler of the universe, to make the road to wickedness in a rational soul by his own agency; for which reason HE HAS COMMITTED TO THOSE ABOUT HIM THE CREATION OF this portion of the universe; for it was necessary that the voluntary principle, as the counterpoise to the involuntary principle, should be established and made known, with a view to the completion and perfection of the universe. [36:180.] And this may be enough to say in this manner; and it is right that this point also should be considered, namely that God is the cause only of what is good but is absolutely the cause of no evil whatever, since he himself is the most ancient of all existing things, and the most perfect of all goods; and it is most natural and becoming that he should do what is most akin to his own nature, that is to say, that the best of all beings should be the cause of all the best things, but that the punishments appointed for the wicked are inflicted BY THE MEANS OF HIS SUBORDINATE MINISTERS. [181.] And there is an evidence in favour of this assertion of mine in this expression, which was uttered by the man who was made perfect by practice; “The God who nourished me from my youth up, THE ANGEL WHO DEFENDED ME FROM ALL EVILS,” [Gen. 48:16.] for by this words he already confesses that those genuine good things which nourish the souls which love virtue, are referred to God as their sole cause; but the fate of the wicked is, on the other hand, referred to THE ANGELS, and even they have not independent and absolute power of inflicting punishment, that this salutary nature may not afford an opportunity to any one of the things which tend to destruction. [182.] For this reason God says, “Come, let ( Us ) go down and confuse,” for the wicked, deserving to meet with such punishment as this, that the merciful, and beneficent, and bounteous, powers of God should become known to them chiefly by its inflictions. Knowing therefore that these powers are beneficial to the race of man, he has appointed the punishments to be inflicted BY OTHER BEINGS; for it was expedient that he himself should be looked upon as the cause of well-doing, but in such a way that the fountains of his everlasting graces should be kept unmingled with any evils, not merely with those that are really evils, but even with those which are accounted such. [37:183.] We must now examine what this confusion is. How then shall we enter on this examination? In this manner, in my opinion. We have very often known those whom we had knowledge of before, from certain similarities and a comparison of circumstances which have some connection with them. Therefore we also become acquainted with things in the same manner, which it is not easy to form a conception of from their own nature, from some similarity of other things connected with them. [184.] What things then resemble confusion? Mixture, as the ancient report has it, and combination; but mixture takes place in dry things, and combination is looked upon as belonging to wet substances. [185.] Mixture then is a placing side by side of different bodies in no regular order, as if any one were to make a heap, bringing barley, and wheat, and pease, and all sorts of other seeds, all into one mass; but combination is not a placing side by side, but rather a mutual penetration of dissimilar parts entering into one another at all points, so that the distinctive qualities are still able to be distinguished by some artificial skill, as they say is the case with respect to wine and water; [186.] for these substances coming together form a combination, but that which is combined is not the less capable of being resolved again into the distinctive qualities from which it was originally formed. For with a sponge saturated with oil it is possible for the water to be taken up and for the wine to be left behind, which may perhaps be because the origin of sponge is derived from water, and therefore it is natural that water being a kindred substance is calculated by nature to be taken up by the sponge out of the combination, but that that substance which is of a different nature, namely the wine, is naturally left behind. [187.] But confusion is the destruction of all the original distinctive qualities, owing to their component parts penetrating one another at every point, so as to generate one thing wholly different, as is the case in that composition of the physicians which they call the tetrapharmacon. For that, I imagine, is made up of wax, and fat, and pitch, and resin, all compounded together, but when the medicine has once been compounded, then it is impossible for it again to be resolved into the powers of which it was originally composed, but every one of them is destroyed separately, and the destruction of them all has produced one other power of exceeding excellence. [188.] But when God threatens impious reasonings with confusion, he is in fact not only commanding the whole species and power of each separate wickedness to be destroyed, but also that thing which has been made up of all their joint contributions; so that neither the parts by themselves, nor the union and harmony of the whole, can contribute any strength hereafter towards the destruction of the better part; [189.] on which account, he says, “Let ( Us ) then confuse their language, so that each of them may not understand the voice of his neighbour,” which is equivalent to, let us make each separate one of the parts of wickedness deaf and dumb, so that it shall neither utter a voice of its own, nor be able to sound in unison with any other part, so as to be a cause of mischief. [38:190.] This, now, is our opinion upon and interpretation of this passage. But they who follow only what is plain and easy, think that what is here intended to be recorded, is the origin of the languages of the Greeks and barbarians, whom, without blaming them (for, perhaps, they also put a correct interpretation on the transaction), I would exhort not to be content with stopping at this point, but to proceed onward to look at the passage in a figurative way, considering that the mere words of the scriptures are, as it were, but shadows of bodies, and that the meanings which are apparent to investigation beneath them, are the real things to be pondered upon. [191.] Accordingly, this lawgiver usually gives a handle for this doctrine to those who are not utterly blind in their intellect; as in fact he does in his account of this very event, which we are now discussing: for he has called what took place, confusion; and yet, if he had only intended to speak of the origin of languages, he would have given a more felicitous name, and one of better omen, calling it division instead of confusion; for things that are divided, are not confused, but, on the contrary, are distinguished from one another, and not only is the one name contrary to the other, but the one fact is contrary to the other fact. [192.] For confusion, as I have already said, is the destruction of simple powers for the production of one concrete power; but division is the dissection of one thing into many parts, as is the case when one distinguishes a genus into its subordinate species so that, if THE WISE GOD HAD ORDERED HIS MINISTERS TO DIVIDE LANGUAGE, which was previously only one, into the divisions of several dialects, he would have used more appropriate expressions, which should have given a more accurate idea of the case: calling what he did, dissection, or distribution, or division, or something of that kind, but not confusion, a name which is at variance with all of them. [193.] But his especial object here is to dissolve the company of wickedness, to put an end to their confederacy, to destroy their community of action, to put out of sight and extirpate all their powers, to overthrow the might of their dominion, which they had strengthened by fearful lawlessness. [194.] Do you not see that he also who made the parts of the soul did not unite any one part to another in such a way as to enable one to discharge the duties of the other? But the eyes would never be able to hear, nor the ears to see, nor the lips of the mouth to smell, nor the nostrils to taste; nor, again, could reason ever be exposed to those influences which operate upon upon the outward senses, nor again, would the outward senses be able to develop reason. [195.] For the Creator knew that it was desirable that each of these parts should not hear the voice of its neighbour, but that the parts of the soul should each exert its own peculiar faculties without confusion, for the advantage of living animals, and should, with the same object, be deprived of any power of exerting themselves in common, and that all the powers of vice should be brought to confusion and utter destruction, so that they might neither in confederacy, nor separately, be injurious to the better parts. [196.] On which account Moses tells us, “The Lord scattered them from thence,” which is equivalent to, he dispersed them, he put them to flight, he banished them, he destroyed them; for to scatter is sometimes done with a view to production, and growth, and increase of other things; but there is another kind which has for its object overthrow and destruction: but GOD, THE PLANTER OF THE WORLD, wishes to sow in every one excellence, but to scatter and drive from the world accursed impiety; that the disposition which hates virtue may at last desist from building up a city of wickedness, and a tower of impiety; [197.] for when these are put to the rout, then those who have long ago been banished by the tyranny of folly, now, at one proclamation, find themselves able to return to their own country. God having drawn up and confirmed the proclamation, as the scriptures show, in which it is expressly stated that, “Even though thy dispersion be from one end of heaven to the other end of heaven, he will bring thee together from Thence.”[Deut. 30:4.] [198.] So that it is proper that the harmony of the virtues should be arranged and cherished by God, and that he should dissolve and destroy wickedness; and confusion is a name most appropriate to wickedness, of which every foolish man is a visible proof, having all his words, and intentions, and actions, incapable of standing an examination and destitute of steadiness...” - (Chapters 33:168-38:198, “De Confusione Linguarum,” “The Works of Philo Judaeus, The contemporary of Josephus, translated from the Greek,” By Charles Duke Yonge, London, H. G. Bohn, 1854-1890.)

Gk., ( συνεργοῖς αὐτοῦ ) “...fellow-workmen of His...”

Or: “...His co-operating workers...”

[170] Gk., ( οὐδὲν τῶν ὄντων ἰσότιμον ὑφέστηκε Θεῷ ) “...[there is] not a single one out of the beings in existence [that are] ( equal ) in honor to God...”

[171] Gk., ( εἷς ὢν ὁ Θεὸς ἀμυθήτους περὶ αὑτὸν ἔχει δυνάμεις ἀρωγοὺς καὶ σωτηρίους τοῦ γενομένου πάσας ) “...[there is] One Being Who Is the definitive God, who has surrounding Him an unspeakable number of powers, defending servants, and saviors of all of those who have come into existence...”

[172] Gk., ( διὰ τούτων τῶν δυνάμεων ) “...through the intermediate agency of these powers...”

Gk., ( τῆς παρ’ ὑπηκόους ) Or: “...alongside in comparison to those [that are] the obedient subjects...”

Or: “...compared to those in subjection...”

Or: “...in comparison to the subjects...”

Or: “...in comparison to the obedient subjects...”

Gk., ( ἀγγέλους ) “...angels...”

Gk., ( πάντ’ [...] τὸν στρατὸν ) “...all […] the army...”

Gk., ( τάξεσιν ὑπηρέτην καὶ θεραπευτὴν ) “...ranks of inferior and voluntary servants...”

Or: “...ranks of subordinate and voluntary servants...”

Or: “...ranks of inferior servants and caring attendants...”

Or: “...ranks of subordinate servants and voluntary attendants...”

Gk., ( Θεοῦ [...] ὁ τοῦ παντὸς Πατήρ ) “...of God […] the Father of Every-thing...”

Or: “...of God […] the Father of the All...”

Or: “...of God […] the Father of all [that exists]...”

Or: “...of God […] the All Father...”

Gk., ( ταῖς ὑπηκόοις δυνάμεσιν ) “...of those subject [and] obedient powers...”

[179] Gk., ( τοῖς ὑπάρχοις αὐτοῦ ) “...those subordinate-commanders of His...”

Or: “...those subordinate-governors of His...”

[179] Gk., ( τοῖς μετ’ αὐτὸν ἐπέτρεψε τὴν τούτου τοῦ μέρους κατασκευήν ) “...He has entrusted to those in company with Him the assignment of constructing these...”

Or: “...He has entrusted to those in company with Him the assignment of these ones preparation...”

Or: “...He has entrusted to those in company with Him the assignment of [the] preparation of these ones...”

Gk., ( διὰ τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτὸν ) “...through the intermediate agency of those under Him/Himself...”

Or: “...through the intermediate agency of those inferior to Him/Himself...”

Or: “...through the intermediate agency of those subordinate to Him/Himself...”

Gk., ( ὁ ἄγγελος ὁ ῥυόμενός με ἐκ πάντων τῶν κακῶν ) “...the Angel, the one delivering me from out of all of the evils...”

Or: “...the Angel, the one delivering me from out of all evils...”

Or: “...the Angel, my deliverer from everything that is bad...”

Or: “...the Angel, the one delivering me from all evil [men]...”

Or: “...the Angel, my deliverer from every evil thing...”

Gk., ( ἀγγέλοις ) “...Angels...”

Gk., ( δι’ ἑτέρων ) “...through the intermediate agency of a number of others of a different kind and quality...”

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