Monday, May 2, 2011

JOHN 1:1 & THE USE & NON-USE OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE IN GREEK

LATIN & PART GREEK TEXT: “...Suscitavit enim mihi Deus aliud semen pro Abel.” Vides, quemnam maledictis incessant, qui honestam ac moderatam incessunt seminationem, et diabolo attribuunt generationem. Non enim simpliciter Deum dixit, qui articuli præmissione, nempe Θεός dicens, significavit eum, qui est omnipotens....” - (Book III Chapter 12, The Stromata by Clement of Alexandria (153-217) Translated by William Wilson.)

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (c. 153 to 217 C.E.): “...'For God has raised up for me another child in Ables place.' You see who is the target of the slanders of those who show their disgust at responsible marriage and attribute the process of birth to the devil? ( Scripture ) does not merely refer to “a god”. By application of the ( definite – article ) it indicates the almighty ruler of the universe...” - (Book III. Chapter 12:81; Page 307. Stromata in “The Fathers Of The Church” Clement of Alexandria Stromateis Books 1-3, Translated by John Ferguson 1991.)

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (c. 153 to 217 C.E.): “...For God has raised up for me other seed instead of Abel." You see who is the object of the blasphemy of those who abuse sober marriage and attribute birth to the devil? The Scripture here does not speak simply of a God, but of the God, indicating the Almighty by the addition of the definite article. ...” - (Book III. Chapter 12:81. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA - THE STROMATA, OR MISCELLANIES - BOOK III TThe Library of Christian Classics: Volume II, Alexandrian Christianity: Selected Translations of Clement and Origine with Introduction and Notes by John Ernest Leonard Oulton, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Dublin; Chancellor of St. Patrick’s and Henry Chadwick, B.D., Fellow and Dean of Queens’ College Cambridge, Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1954. pages 40-92.)

My translation:

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (circa. 153 to 217 C.E.): “...In fact it does not simply mean "( a ) god." Well - what does this article in front mean? Without a doubt it means "the ( definitive ) God," - indeed signifying the one afore mentioned is the Almighty...” - (Book III. Chapter 12:81; Stromata translated by Matt13weedhacker 17/8/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: Ltn., ( Enim ) = for, for instance, namely, that is to say, I mean, in fact I. To corroborate a preceding assertion, ... truly, certainly, to be sure, indeed, in fact:
[FOOTNOTE]: Ltn., ( Deum ) = accusative indefinite
[FOOTNOTE]: Ltn., ( Dixit ) = to say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend
[FOOTNOTE]: Ltn., ( Nempe ) = I. Prop., in strengthening or confirming an assertion, as that which cannot be disputed, indeed, certainly, without doubt, to be sure, assuredly ... 1. In laying down a premise or conclusion

I came accross this today (4/09/11) and thought it must be added to this post:

GREEK TEXT: "...ἀπὸ γὰρ τοῦ «τοῦ» ἄρθρου τοὔνομα τῆς διακρίσεως ἔστιν σημᾶναι. ὅπου γὰρ τὸ ἄρθρον κεῖται, ἐπὶ ἑνί τινι ὡρισμένῳ καὶ διαφανεστάτῳ ἐστὶν ἡ βεβαίωσις διὰ τὸ ἄρθρον· ἄνευ δὲ τοῦ ἄρθρου ἐπὶ ἑνός του τυχόντος ἀορίστως ἐστὶ ληπτέον· ὡς οἷον εἰπεῖν ἐὰν εἴπωμεν βασιλεύς, ὄνομα μὲν ἐσημάναμεν, ἀλλ' οὐ τηλαυγῶς τὸν ὁριζόμενον ἐδείξαμεν· βασιλέα γὰρ λέγομεν καὶ Περσῶν καὶ Μήδων καὶ Ἐλαμιτῶν. ἐὰν δὲ μετὰ προσθήκης τοῦ ἄρθρου εἴπωμεν ὁ βασιλεύς, ἀναμφίβολόν ἐστι τὸ σημαινόμενον· ὁ γὰρ βασιλεὺς ὁ ζητούμενος ἢ λεγόμενος ἢ γινωσκόμενος ἢ τοῦ τινος βασιλεύων διὰ τοῦ ἄρθρου ὑποδείκνυται. καὶ ἐὰν εἴπωμεν θεὸς ἄνευ τοῦ ἄρθρου, τὸν τυχόντα εἴπαμεν θεὸν τῶν ἐθνῶν ἢ θεὸν τὸν ὄντα. ἐὰν δὲ εἴπωμεν ὁ θεός, δῆλον ὡς ἀπὸ τοῦ «ὁ» ἄρθρου τὸν ὄντα σημαίνομεν, ἀληθῆ τε καὶ γινωσκόμενον, ὡς καὶ ἄνθρωπος καὶ ἄνθρωπος..." - (Section I, 4:4-6; [Κατὰ Σαμαρειτῶν ( ζ )] The Samaratains, "The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis," MPG.)

LATIN TEXT: "...Ex eo enim, quod articulum apposuit, distinctione nominis opus esse demonstrat. Nam ubicumque articulus adiungitur, certa ac perspicue definita res intelligitur. Sine articulo de quolibet accipi infinite solet. Ut exempli caussa si, Rex, dixero, nomen quidem ipsum declaro, quis ille sit de quo loquor, aperte non significo. Regem enim tam Persarum quam Medorum atque Elamitarum appellamus. Quod si articulo etiam adhibito, Hic rex, dicimus, nemo quem velimus ignorat. Hic enim rex eo articulo notatur de quo quaestio vel sermo aliquis inciderit, denique qui sit cognitus ac certo imperio dominetur. Similiter cum, Deus, simpliciter usurpamus, quemlibet deum dicimus, nec minus eum qui a gentibus colitur quam qui vere deus est. At cum ( θεός ) dicimus, eum scilicet exprimimus qui verus et est et esse cognoscitur deus. Similiter, cum Homo, vel Hic homo dicitur..." - (Pages 71-73, Sancti Patris Nostri, Epiphanii Constantiae Episcopi "PANARIA." in "CORPORIS HAERESEOLOGICI," Tomus Secundus, by Franciscus Oehler 1859.)

EPIPHANIUS OF SALAMIS (circa. 310-403 C.E.): "...This [4.] is shown by "the," the so-called "definite article." Wherever the article appears, it is the confirmation of some one thing which is specified and is very easy to recognize, because of the article. But without the article we must understand the word in-determinately, of anything. [5.] If we say "king," for example, we have indicated a noun, but not shown clearly which king is specified; we speak both of ( a ) "king" of Persians, and ( a ) "king" of Medes and Elamities. But if we add the article and say "( the ) king," what we mean is beyond doubt. ( The ) king in question, someone called king, someone known to be king, or ( the ) ruler of this and that kingdom is implied by the article. [6.] And if ( we ) say "god" without the article, we have spoken either of any heathen god, or of the actual God. But if ( we ) say "( the ) God," it is clear that because of the article we mean the actual God, who is the ( true ) God and is known to be. And so with "man" and "( the ) man..." - (Page 32, Vol 1, Book I, [Section I,] Chapter 9, 4:4-6; The Samaratains, "The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis," By Frank Williams 1987.)
[FOOTNOTE]: It must be noted that Epiphanius is a hardcore Tri{3}nitarian and this work is entitled "Against All Arians".