Tuesday, February 14, 2012

( PART 8 ) DID THE EARLIEST POST-BIBLICAL CHRISTIAN WRITERS TEACH CHRISTENDOM'S OFFICIAL DOCTRINE OF THE TRI{3}NITY? = CLEMENT OF ROME – LETTER TO THE CORINTHIANS – CHAPTER 2(A)



ΚΛΗΜΕΝΤΟΣ ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Α
1ST CLEMENT TOWARD [THE] CORINTHIANS

CHAPTER 2.

GREEK TEXT: “...Πάντες τε ἐταπεινοφρονεῖτε μηδὲν ἀλαζονευόμενοι, ὑποτασσόμενοι μᾶλλον ἢ ὑποτάσσοντες, ἥδιον διδόντες ἢ λαμβάνοντες. Τοῖς ἐφοδίοις ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) ἀρκούμενοι καὶ προσέχοντες τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ ἐπιμελῶς ἐνεστερνισμένοι ἦτε τοῖς σπλάγχνοις, καὶ ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ) ἦν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑμῶν...” - (ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΟΝ Β ’. [Chapter 2]: Epistula i ad Corinthios Τοῦ ἁγίου Κλήμεντος τοῦ Ῥώμης ἐπισκόπου ἐπιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους Α ’. Ἐκ προσώπου τῆς Ῥωμαίων Ἐκκλησίας γραφεῖσα, [MPG] Jacques Paul Migne's Patrologia Graeca (Patrologiae Cursus Completus. Series Graeca) Imprimerie Catholique, 1857–1866.)

GREEK TEXT: “...Πάντες τε ἐταπεινοφρονεῖτε μηδὲν ἀλαζονευόμενοι, ὑποτασσόμενοι μᾶλλον ἢ ὑποτάσσοντες, ἥδιον διδόντες ἢ λαμβάνοντες· τοῖς ἐφοδίοις ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) ἀρκούμενοι, καὶ προσέχοντες τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ ἐπιμελῶς ἐνεστερνισμένοι ἦτε τοῖς σπλάγχνοις, καὶ ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ) ἦν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑμῶν...” - (“1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS, I CLEMENT, II CLEMENT Based on the Krissop Lake text of the Loeb Classical Library First published 1913.)

GREEK TEXT:... Πάντες τε ἐταπεινοφρονεῖτε μηδὲν ἀλαζονευόμενοι, ὑποτασσόμενοι μᾶλλον ἢ ὑποτάσσοντες, ἥδιον διδόντες ἢ λαμβάνοντες· τοῖς ἐφοδίοις ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) ἀρκούμενοι, καὶ προσέχοντες τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ ἐπιμελῶς ἐνεστερνισμένοι ἦτε τοῖς σπλάγχνοις, καὶ ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ) ἦν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑμῶν...” - (Page 100, Chapter 2:1; PATRES APOSTOLICI, by Franciscus Xaverius Funk 1901.)
[FOOTNOTE]: Cf. II Cor. 1, 5; I Petr. 4, 13; 5, 1.

GREEK TEXT: “...Πάντες τε ἐταπεινοφρονεῖτε μηδὲν ἀλαζονευόμενοι, ὑποτασσόμενοι μᾶλλον ἢ ὑποτάσ[σ]οντες, ἭΔΙΟΝ ΔΙΔΌΝΤΕΣ Ἢ ΛΑΜΒΆ[Ν]ΟΝΤΕΣ· τοῖς ἐφοδίοις τοῦ [Θεοῦ]{*} ἀρ[κ]ούμενοι. Καὶ προσέχοντες τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ ἐπιμελῶς ἐνεστερνισμένοι ἦτε τοῖς σπλάγχνοις, καὶ ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ) ἦν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑμῶν...” - (Pages 36-37, S. “CLEMENT OF ROME, The Two Epistles To The Corinthians, A Revised Text With Introduction And Notes,” by J. B. Lighfoot, 1869.)
[FOOTNOTE *]:

GREEK TEXT: “...Πάντες τε ἐταπεινοφρονεῖτε, μηδὲν ἀλαζονευόμενοι, ὑποτασσόμενοι μᾶλλον ἢ ὑποτάσσοντες, ἥδιον διδόντες ἢ λαμβάνοντες, τοῖς ἐφοδίοις {*}( τοῦ θεοῦ ) ἀρκούμενοι. καὶ προσέχοντες τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ ἐπιμελῶς ἐνεστερνισμένοι ἦτε τοῖς σπλάγχνοις, καὶ ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ) ἦν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑμῶν...” - (Page 46, “The Apostolic Fathers,” 3rd ed., Greek Texts and English Translations, Edited and translated by Michael W. Holmes, 2007.)
[FOOTNOTE *]: “...2.1 θεου A] Χριστου C,L,S,Co...”

LATIN TEXT:... alimentis ( Xpisti ) contenti, et adtendentes ei uerba illius in pectore habebatis et in uisceribus uestris, ut et ( passiones illius ) ante oculos uestros fuerint...” - (Page 3, Chapter 2, Latin translation circa 2nd-3rd Century C.E., preserved in 11th Century C.E., MSS G. Morin Sancti Clementis Romani ad Corinthios Epistulae version latina antiquissima, Anecdota Maredsolana 2 ; Maredsosus, Belgium, 1894.)

LATIN TEXT:...dantes libentius quam accipientes. ( Dei ) viatico contenti ; verbaque ejus diligenter aitendentes, dilatati eratis in visceribus ; ejusque ( passiones vobis ) prae oculis erant...” - (Page 3, Chapter 2, Latin translation [MPG] Jacques Paul Migne's Patrologia Graeca (Patrologiae Cursus Completus. Series Graeca) Imprimerie Catholique, 1857–1866 .)

LATIN TEXT: “... dantes potius quam accipientes ; ( Dei ) viatico contenti, et accurate aitendentes sermonibus ejus : dilatati eratis in visceribus, et ( passiones illius ) prae oculis vestris erant...” - (Page 38, Chapter 2, AD CORINTHIOS EPISTOLA PRIMA. SANCTI CLEMENTIS EPISCOPI ROMANI, ( EX VERSIONE RUFINI ) Tomus Primus [Book I], Patres Apostolici, COLLECTIO SELECTA SS. ECCLESIAE PATRUM, Complectens Exquisitissima Opera. By D. M. N. S. Guuillon. M. DCCC. XXIX.)

LATIN TEXT:...Omnes humili animo eratis, in nulla re inani gloriatione dediti. Aliis subiecti potius quam alios vobis subicientes, libentius dantes quam accipientes ; ( Christi ){*} viatico contneti eique animum adtendentes verba ipsius diligenter ac cum amore complexi eratis, et ( passiones{^} eius ) vobis prae oculis obversabantur...” - (Page 101, Chapter 2:1; Latin translation PATRES APOSTOLICI, by Franciscus Xaverius Funk 1901.)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Funk's Greek text reads ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ).
[FOOTNOTE ^]: Cf. II Cor. 1, 5; I Petr. 4, 13; 5, 1.


A COMPARISON OF TRANSLATIONS OLD AND NEW:


CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...Ye [1.] were all of you humble minded, not boasting of any thing, desiring rather to be subject than to govern ; to give, than receive ; being content with the portion ( God ) had dispensed unto you : and hearkening diligently to his word, ye were enlarged in your bowels, having ( his – sufferings ) always before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” by Temple Chevallier, edited by W. R. Whittingham 1834.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...And [1.] ye were all lowly in mind and free from arrogance, yeilding rather than claiming submission, “more glad to give than to receive,” and content with the provisions which ( God ) supplieth. And giving heed unto his words, ye laid them up diligently in your hearts, and ( his – sufferings ) were before your eyes...” - ( Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” By George A. Jackson. The Apostolic fathers ; and, The Fathers of the third century. 1882.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...And [1.] ye were all humble, boasting of nothing, submitting yourselves rather than subjecting others, more gladly giving than receiving, content with the provision that ( God ) had given you; and attending diligently to his words, ye received them into your very hearts, and ( his - sufferings ) were before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1; THE FIRST EPISTLE OF CLEMENT TO THE CORINTHIANS translated by Charles H. Hoole, 1885.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...Ye [1.] were all of you humble minded, not boasting of anything ; desiring rather to be subject than to govern, to give rather than to receive ; being content with the portion ( God ) had dispensed to you ; and, hearkening diligently to His word, ye were enlarged in your bowels, having ( His – sufferings ) always before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS, Ancient & Modern Library of Theological Literature by Dr. Burton 1888.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...And [1.] ye were all lowly in mind and free from arrogance, yielding rather than claiming submission, more glad to give than to
receive, and content with the provisions which ( God ) supplieth. And giving heed unto His words, ye laid them up diligently in your hearts, and ( His - sufferings ) were before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1; THE FIRST EPISTLE OF CLEMENT TO THE CORINTHIANS Translated by J.B. Lightfoot.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...Moreover, [1.] you were all distinguished by humility, and were in no respect puffed up with pride, but yielded obedience rather than extorted it, and were more willing to give than to receive? Content with the provision which ( God ) had made for you, and carefully attending to His words, you were inwardly filled with His doctrine, and ( His - sufferings ) were before your eyes...” - (CHAPTER 2:1; PRAISE OF THE CORINTHIANS CONTINUED, CLEMENT OF ROME, First Epistle/Letter of Clement to the Corinthians ANF Series edited by Roberts & Donaldson.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...And [1.] you were all humble-minded and in no wise arrogant, yeilding subjection rather than demanding it, “giving more gladly than receiving,” satisfied with the provision of ( Christ ), and paying attention to his words you stored them up carefully in your hearts, and kept ( his – sufferings ) before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, Krissop Lake 1912.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...And [1.] ye were all humbled-minded and un-assuming, willing to submit rather than claiming submission, finding it greater joy: “to give than recive” [Cf. Acts XX. 35.], satisfied with the sustenance{*} that ( Christ ) can give. Moreover, ye gave heed to His words and laid them diligently to heart, while ( His – sufferings ) were ever before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” An English Translation.)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Lightfoot urges in a long note the Gk., ( ἐφόδια ) means provisions bodily, not spiritual, and cites Eusebius (H. E. iv. 23) who quotes part of a letter from Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, to Soter, bishop of Rome (circa. 160 C.E.), in which this word occurs twice, with reference to supplies sent from the Roman to the Corinthian Church at a time of great need. This view was taken by Lightfoot, who accepted the reading of A Gk., ( ἐφοδίοις Θεοῦ ) against C and S Gk., ( ἐφ. Χριστοῦ ). The Latin version however gives testimony against A, and therefore we must accept the reading – rejected – by Lightfoot, “alimentis Christi.” He admits that Gk., ( ἐφόδια ) bears not infrequently the sense of spiritual sustenance ; and further, the idea of spiritual support afforded by Christ supplies a pointed anti-thesis to the preceding words: “finding it greater joy to give than receive.” Again, it cannot be denied that is - ( more natural ) - to speak of the sufferings of - ( Christ ), - in the following clause (where the text gives “His sufferings”), than of the: “sufferings of ( God ),” although, as Lightfoot says, the Catholic doctrine of the Person of Christ admits both ways of speaking.

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...Moreover, [1.] you were all in a humble frame of mind, in no way arrogant, practicing obedience rather than demanding it, happier in giving than in receiving. Being content with, and intent upon, the provisions which ( Christ ) allowed you for your earthly pilgrimage, it was His words that you carefully locked up in your hearts, and ( His sufferings ) were ever before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians,” THE EPISTLES OF. ST. CLEMENT OF ROME AND ST. IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH NEWLY TRANSLATED AND ANNOTATED BY JAMES A. KLEIST, S.J., Ph.D. Professor of Classical Languages St. Louis University St. Louis, Mo. THE NEWMAN BOOKSHOP WESTMINSTER, MARYLAND 1946.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...Every [1.] one of you used to walk in humbleness of mind, without boasting, preferring to obey rather than to command. To give rather than to receive, satisfied with the rations{*} served by ( Christ ). You gave heed to His words ; you were careful to keep them in your hearts ; ( His – sufferings ) before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” THE FATHERS OF THE CHURCH, A New Translation Vol. 1, Ludwig Schopp 1962.)
[FOOTNOTE *]: The Greek word ( ephodia ) literally “things for the journey,” Latin ( viaticum ) was especially appropriate in military usage.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/53598582/The-Fathers-of-the-Church-A-new-translation-Volume-01

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...In everything you were humble rather than boasting, subjecting yourselves rather than subjecting others, gladly giving rather than taking. Content with the journey provisions of ( Christ ), and carefully attentive to his words, storing them away deep inside you, you kept ( His - Passion ) before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” translated by Kevin P. Edgecomb.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...Moreover, [1.] you were all humble and free from arrogance, submitting rather than demanding submission, more glad to give than to receive, and content with the provisions that ( God ){*} supplies. And giving heed to his words, you stored them up diligently in your hearts, and kept ( his – sufferings ) before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” translated by Michael Holmes 3rd edition 2003.)
[FOOTNOTE *]: “...God...” Most ancient authorities read “...Christ...”
CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...And [1.] all of you used to be humble in mind, not arrogant in the least, being submissive rather than forcing submission, giving more gladly than receiving, being satisfied with the provisions supplied by ( Christ ). You heeded his words, carefully storing them up in your inner selves. And ( his -sufferings ) were present before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” “The Apostolic Fathers: I Clement, II Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, Didache,” By Bart D. Ehrman 2003.)
http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=7nPPmqAu4RwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+apostolic+fathers&hl=en&ei=cN9ATZHDD4L3gAecmZjfAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false&safe=high

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...You [1.] were all humble and without any pretensions, obeying orders rather than issuing them, more gladly giving than receiving. Content with ( Christs ) rations and mindful of them, you stored his words carefully up in your hearts and held ( his – sufferings ) before your eyes...” - ( , “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” The Apostolic Fathers, the Moody Classics 2009.)

So straight away we see in 1st Clement Chapter 2:1, different readings in the translations above.

Were you able to spot the difference? Did you note the doctrinal importance of these readings?

Here's a couple of sample translations to illustrate what I mean. Compare the following, and see if you can pick it up:

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...the provision of ( Christ ), […] and kept ( his – sufferings ) before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, Krissop Lake 1912.)

CLEMENT OF ROME (circa. 30-100 C.E.): “...the provisions that ( God ){*} supplies. […] and kept ( his – sufferings ) before your eyes...” - (Chapter 2:1, “1st Epistle to the Corinthians, by Clement of Rome,” translated by Michael Holmes 3rd edition 2003.)
[FOOTNOTE *]: “...God...” Most ancient authorities read “...Christ...”

So from the difference in these readings the question arises - is Clement talking about:

...( God )...” and “...His sufferings...”?

Or

...( Christ )...” and “...his sufferings...”?

The answer to this question is serious and is of no little importance.

ALVAN LAMSON (circa. 1792-1864 C.E.): “...THIS PASSAGE IS THE ( SOLE STRAW ) TO WHICH THOSE CAN ( CLING ) WHO MAINTAIN THAT CLEMENT OF ROME BELIEVED IN THE ( DEITY ) OF CHRIST...” - (Page 5- , FOOTNOTE 9, Preliminary Chapter, 'Writings Ascribed To The Apostolical Fathers So Called' THE CHURCH FIRST THREE CENTURIES: OR, NOTICES OF THE LIVES AND OPINIONS OF SOME OF THE EARLY FATHERS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY; ILLUSTRATING ITS LATE ORIGIN AND GRADUAL FORMATION. BY ALVAN LAMSON, 1875.)

The doctrinal difference lies in ( who ) exactly - the Ltn., ( passiones illius ) or Gk., ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ) literally: “...the sufferings ( of ) him...” refer to?

Because grammatically the antecedent of Ltn., ( illius ) or Gk., ( αὐτοῦ ) is either:

  1. ...( of ) God...” or
  2. ...( of ) the Christ...”

Referred to earlier in the verse, both of which are in the Genitive case.

The Gk., ( αὐτοῦ ) “...( of ) him...” according to the rule of concord or agreement in Greek grammar must “...agree with...” the ( subject ) in gender, case, and number.

So let us look at ( why ) this textual difference exists.

There are two basic reasons:

  1. A manuscript or MSS variant in the text.
  2. The choice of the translators.

The textual variant is traceable to the Fifth Century Codex Alexandrinus version of 1st Clement which reads Gk., ( τοῦ Θεοῦ ) “...( of ) the God...” in Chapter 2:1.

Here is a picture of the page where this variant occurs in the Codex Alexandrinus below.




This reading is also found in Rufinus of Aquelia's (circa. 340-410 C.E.), Latin version of 1st Clement, Ltn., ( Dei ) “...( of ) God...” which was originally translated by him in the late Fourth or very early Fifth Century, which, ( possibly ) was written with-in the same century as the Codex Alexandrinus.

Whereas, other MSS versions read Gk., ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) “...( of ) the Christ...” or Ltn., ( Xpisti ) “...( of ) Christ...”
 
LINK TO COPTIC TEXT OF THE BERLIN CODEX = Chapter 2:1 = Page 32, line 5 = “...Christ...”:

LINK TO COPTIC TEXT OF THE STRASBOURG CODEX = Chapter 2:1:

A translators background, honesty, and religious leaning will affect which reading they chose to put in their translation or not. If they believe in the Tri{3}nity and it's accompanying teaching of the “...Deity of Christ...” they will chose “...( of ) God...” but if they don't, they will likely put “...( of ) the Christ...” reading instead.

So it gets down to a ( choice ) by the translator based on the evidence and information available to him at the time and his or hers doctrinal leaning and most of all their intellectual honesty.

For us to get to the bottom of which reading is most likely to be - ( genuine ) - let us look at:

1.) What MSS exist for the text of Clements 1st Epistle to the Corinthians today
2.) What is the majority reading or which has the most MSS support
3.) Which has the most geographical spread or widest support
4.) What is the oldest MSS reading
5.) What scriptures in the Bible have a bearing on the interpretation of the passage
6.) A textual parallel in the AF and its influence


POINT 1 – THE EXTANT MANUSCRIPTS


As to our first point, the MSS that are extant today are listed below.

They are generally dated or thought to have been written in a certain century and are said to have been based on an earlier text type by certain scholars:

(A) = Codex Alexandrinus (circa 5th C.E.) lacks chapters 57:7-63:4.
(C) = Codex Hierosolymitanus [or Constantinopolitanus] (circa. 1056 C.E.)
(L) = Latin literal translation (circa. 11th C.E.) from a (circa. 2-3rd C.E.) prototype.
(S) = Syriac translation (dated. 1169 C.E.) represents a (circa. 8Th C.E.) text.
(Co) = Two Coptic translations [SEE (C1) (C2) BELOW ] written between (circa. 4-7th C.E.).

(C1) formerly (Kb) = Schmidt Papyrus, Fol. 3065 (circa. 4Th C.E.) Konigliche Bibliothek, in Berlin.
(C2) formerly (Ks) = Rösch Papyrus, Pap. 362-385 (circa. 5-7Th C.E.) Strasbourg University, contains fragments of 1.1-26.2.


POINT 2 – THE MAJORITY TEXT


The Majority of MSS read Gk., ( Χριστοῦ ) “...( of ) Christ...” or Gk., ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) “...( of ) the Christ...” or Ltn., ( Xpisti ) “...( of ) Christ...”compared to the Codex Alexandrinus MSS which alone reads Gk., ( τοῦ Θεοῦ ) “...( of ) God...” 

LINK TO COPTIC TEXT OF THE BERLIN CODEX = Chapter 2:1 = Page 32, line 5 = “...Christ...”:

LINK TO COPTIC TEXT OF THE STRASBOURG CODEX = Chapter 2:1:

As far as Rufinus of Aquelia's Latin version is concerned and why I don't include his reading as genuine, we shall deal with in detail below.

The footnotes to Michael Holmes version really give the whole game away:

[FOOTNOTE TO GREEK TEXT PAGE 46]: “...2.1 θεου A] Χριστου C,L,S,Co...” - (The Apostolic Fathers, 3rd ed.: Greek Texts and English Translations, Edited and translated by Michael W. Holmes, 2007.)

[FOOTNOTE TO TRANSLATION PAGE 47]: “...2.1 more glad ... receive Cf. Acts 20:35. God Most ancient authorities read Christ....” - (The Apostolic Fathers, 3rd ed.: Greek Texts and English Translations, Edited and translated by Michael W. Holmes, 2007.)

You could sum it up this way:

MAJORITY = 5/4 x MSS – C, L, S, Co read Gk., ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ )
MINORITY = 1 x MSS – A reads Gk., ( τοῦ Θεοῦ )

So this point is clear, it is FIVE or FOUR – TO – ONE against Gk., ( τοῦ Θεοῦ ).


POINT 3 – THE GEOGRAPHICAL SPREAD


The geographical distribution or spread of the Gk., ( Χριστοῦ ) reading is a witness to an original archetype which had this reading, and is highly significant.

The support for Gk., ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) or Ltn., ( Xpisti ) is spread across a wide geographical area judged by the languages this reading is found in:

  1. Greek language
  2. Latin language
  3. Syriac language
  4. Coptic language


For pictures of the various manuscripts see the links below: 

GREEK - see line eleven for "...Christ..."

SYRIAC


ACTUAL MSS PICTURE SYRIAC

LATIN MSS PICTURE MORIN


POINT 4 – THE OLDEST READING


The oldest MSS reading is judged by many to be the Morin Latin MSS which is reputed to be based upon a very early ( circa. Second or Third Century ) prototype.

Also the Coptic MSS, (C1) and (C2), dated to have been written in the ( Fourth and Fifth Centuries ) respectively, are at the least on pa with or older than the Fifth Century Codex Alexandrinus.

NOTE: Rufinus of Aquelia's Latin version's of the ANF are notoriously corrupt and heavily biased towards the Post-Chanceldon tri{3}nity teaching. Rufinus is well known (as confessed by himself) to have altered many ANF writings to favour tri{3}nitarian readings and the current teachings of his day and therefore holds absolutely no authority at all due to his blatant bias.

Because of this, Rufinus version is therefore - ( not ) - I repeat - ( not ) - to be included in among the - ( genuine ) - witnesses of writings of the Sub-Apostolic age.

He is admitted to have - ( deliberately altered ) - Clement of Romes - ( other ) - writings.

You only have to read his following words and self admission to be convinced of his dishonesty, deviousness, unreliability and total theological bias:

RUFINUS OF AQUELIA (circa. 340-410 C.E.): “...I think that, in the matter of THE TRANSLATION OF ST. CLEMENT,[2773] besides the other defects of my abilities, you noticed this especially as showing the weakness caused by my want of practice, THAT WHERE I HAD BEEN UNABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE WORDS OR TO EXPRESS THEM ACCURATELY, I HAVE TRANSLATED THEM ACCORDING TO - ( MY IDEA OF ) - THEIR - ( DRIFT ), - OR, TO SPEAK - ( MORE TRULY ), - SET DOWN WHAT - ( I THOUGHT ) - ( OUGHT ) - TO BE THERE...” - (Preface, COMMENTARY ON THE BENEDICTIONS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS, ANF Series edited by Roberts & Donaldson.)
[FOOTNOTE 2773]: That is, the Recognitions. See the Preface to Rufinus’ Translation in this volume, with the explanatory note prefixed to it.


POINT 5 – SCRIPTURES WHICH HAVE A BEARING ON INTERPRETATION


Compare 1st Corinthians 1:5:

ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Β΄ 1:5 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...ὅτι καθὼς περισσεύει (
τὰ παθήματα τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) εἰς ἡμᾶς, οὕτως διὰ τοῦ Χριστοῦ περισσεύει καὶ ἡ παράκλησις ἡμῶν...”

LATIN: BIBLIA SACRA VULGATA
“...quoniam sicut abundant (
passiones Christi ) in nobis ita et per Christum abundat consolatio nostra...”

YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION
“...because, as (
the sufferings of the Christ ) do abound to us, so through the Christ doth abound also our comfort...”

For a picture of 1st Cor 1:5 in Papyrus P46 (circa. 200 C.E.) see this link below: http://chrles.multiply.com/photos/album/82#photo=4

Here we have almost the exact wording of both phrases in the sentence in 1st Clement 2:1 but combined:

Note the similarity in the wording found in the text:

1st Corinthians 1:5
Gk., ( τὰ παθήματα τοῦ Χριστοῦ )

1st Corinthians 1:5
Ltn., ( passiones Christi )

1st Clement 2:1
Gk., ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) and Gk., ( τὰ παθήματα )

1st Clement 2:1
Ltn., ( Xpisti ) and Ltn., ( passiones )

Yes the word order is different in 1st Clement 2:1, but no doubt the idea is the same, that Clement had “...Christs'...” sufferings in view.

Nowhere in the scriptures does it use the phrase Gk., ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ) in direct connection or reference to Gk., ( τοῦ Θεοῦ ).

But here, we do have, in 1st Corinthians 1:5 Gk., ( τὰ παθήματα τοῦ Χριστοῦ ) “...the sufferings of the Christ...”
Compare 1st Peter 4:13:

ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ 4:13 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...ἀλλὰ καθ̀ο κοινωνεῖτε τοῖς (
τοῦ Χριστοῦ παθήμασιν ) χαίρετε, ἵνα καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ χαρῆτε ἀγαλλιώμενοι...”

YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION
“...but, according as ye have fellowship with ( the sufferings of the Christ ), rejoice ye, that also in the revelation of his glory ye may rejoice – exulting...”

For a picture of 1st Peter 4:13 in Papyrus P72 (circa. 3Rd C.E.) see this link below: http://chrles.multiply.com/photos/album/56#photo=10

Compare also Phillipians 3:10:

ΠΡΟΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΗΣΙΟΥΣ 3:10 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...τοῦ γνῶναι αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ καὶ κοινωνίαν ( παθημάτων αὐτοῦ ) συμμορφιζόμενος τῷ θανάτῳ αὐτοῦ...”

YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION
“...to know him, and the power of his rising again, and the fellowship of ( his sufferings ), being conformed to his death...”

Once again refferring to Christ in the context, but note again the similarity of the wording:

Phillipians 3:10
Gk., ( παθημάτων αὐτοῦ )

1st Clement 2:1
Gk., ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ )

Same Greek word for “...suffering...” just a different form or grammatical case.

Compare also 1st Peter 5:1:

ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ 5:1 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...Πρεσβυτέρους οὖν ἐν ὑμῖν παρακαλῶ ὁ συμπρεσβύτερος καὶ μάρτυς ( τῶν τοῦ Χριστοῦ παθημάτων ), ὁ καὶ τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης κοινωνός...”

YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION
“...Elders who are among you, I exhort, who am a fellow-elder, and a witness ( of the sufferings of the Christ ), and of the glory about to be revealed a partaker...”

Compare also Hebrews 2:10:

ΠΡΟΣ ΕΒΡΑΙΟΥΣ 2:10 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...Ἔπρεπεν γὰρ αὐτῷ, δι’ ὃν τὰ πάντα καὶ δι’ οὗ τὰ πάντα πολλοὺς υἱοὺς εἰς δόξαν ἀγαγόντα τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν διὰ (
παθημάτων ) τελειῶσαι...”

DARBY BIBLE TRANSLATION
“...For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make perfect the leader of their salvation through ( sufferings )...”

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD VERSION (©2008)
“...It was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through ( suffering ) as part of his plan to glorify many children...”

Compare also Hebrews 5:8:

ΠΡΟΣ ΕΒΡΑΙΟΥΣ 5:8 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics
“...καίπερ ὢν υἱὸς, ἔμαθεν ἀφ’ ὧν ( ἔπαθεν ) τὴν ὑπακοήν...”

Strong's Translit. Greek English Morphology
2539 [e]kaiper καίπερ though Conj
1510 [e]ōn ὢν being V-PP-NMS
5207 [e]huios υἱός a son, N-NMS
3129 [e]emathen ἔμαθεν he learned V-AIA-3S
575 [e]aph' ἀφ' from Prep
3739 [e]hōn ὧν the things which RelPro-GNP
3958 [e]epathen ἔπαθεν he suffered, V-AIA-3S
3588 [e]tēn τὴν – Art-AFS
5218 [e]hypakoēn ὑπακοήν obedience; N-AFS

(VULGATE) “...et quidem cum esset Filius didicit ex his quae ( passus ) est oboedientiam...”

(NVLA) “...et quidem cum esset Filius, didicit ex his, quae ( passus ) est, oboedientiam...”

(COPTIC-BOHAIRIC) ⲕⲉⲡⲉⲣ ⳿ⲉⲟⲩϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲁϥ⳿ⲉⲙⲓ ⳿ⲉϮⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉϥⲥⲱⲧⲉⲙ ⳿ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓ⳿ⲙⲕⲁⲩϩ ⲉⲧⲁϥϭⲓⲧⲟⲩ.

For a picture of Hebrews 5:8 in Papyrus P46 (circa. 200 C.E.) see this link below

(CNT-SD-(Eng)) “...although he is the Son, he learned the obedience out of the (sufferings) which he received...”

(ACV) “...although being a Son, he learned obedience from the things that he suffered...”

(ABU-NT) “...though a Son yet learned from what he suffered the [required] obedience...”

(AUV-NT) “...[And] although He was a Son, still He learned obedience from the things He suffered...”

(CEV) “...Jesus is God's own Son, but still he had to suffer before he could learn what it really means to obey God...”

(EB) “...Even though he was a son, yet learned, from what things he suffered, obedience...”

(Diaglott-NT) “...though being a son, learned, from what things he suffered, the obedience...”

(ERV) “...Jesus was the Son of God, but he still suffered, and through his sufferings he learned to obey whatever God says...”

(Murdock) “...And though he was a son, yet, from the fear and the sufferings he endured, he learned obedience...”

(GSNT) “...And although he was a son, he learned to obey, through what he suffered...”

(Moffatt NT) “...Thus, Son though he was, he learned by all he suffered how to obey...”

(Knox NT) “...Son of God though he was, he learned obedience in the school of suffering...”

Compare Phillipians 2:8:
...καὶ σχήματι εὑρεθεὶς ὡς ἄνθρωπος ἐταπείνωσεν ἑαυτὸν γενόμενος ὑπήκοος μέχρι θανάτου, θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ...”

(VULGATE) “...humiliavit semet ipsum factus oboediens usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis...”

(NVLA) “...humiliavit semetipsum factus oboediens usque ad mortem,mortem autem crucis...”

(COPTIC-BOHAIRIC) ⲁϥⲑⲉⲃⲓⲟϥ ⳿ⲙⲙⲁⲩⲁⲧϥ ⳿ⲉⲁϥⲉⲣⲣⲉϥⲥⲱⲧⲉⲙ ϣⲁ ⳿ⲉ⳿ϧⲣⲏⲓ ⳿ⲉ⳿ⲫⲙⲟⲩ ⲟⲩⲙⲟⲩ ⲇⲉ ⳿ⲛⲧⲉ ⲟⲩ.̇

(Israeli Authorized Version): “...And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the execution stake...”

(Jonathan Mitchell NT): “...And being found in a present condition and outward appearance (fashion) as a human (a man), He lowers Himself (humbled Himself; made Himself low; degrades Himself; levels Himself off), coming to be (birthing Himself) a submissive, obedient One (one who gives the ear and listens) as far as (to the point of; until) death -- but death of a cross (torture stake)!...”

(New Simplified Bible): “...He obtained the appearance as a man, humbled himself, and became obedient even to death, yes, death on the stake...”

Weymouth New Testament
And being recognized as truly human, He humbled Himself and even stooped to die; yes, to die on a cross.

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English (©2010)
And he humbled himself and was obedient unto death, even the death of being crucified.

(ACV) “...And having been found in a form like a man, he lowered himself, having become obedient until death, even of death from a cross...”

(ABP+) “...having become subject unto death, even death of the cross...”

(ABU-NT) “...And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, becoming obedient unto death, even the death of the cross...”

(AUV-NT) “...He humbled Himself [by] becoming obedient [to God] to the point of death, even death on a cross...”

(ALT) “...and having been found in appearance as a person, He humbled Himself, having become obedient to the point of death—even of death of a cross...”

(ANT+) “...[He] lowers himself Becoming Obedient until death death but [of] cross...”

(VW) “...And being found comprised as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross...”

(CEV) “...Christ was humble. He obeyed God and even died on a cross...”

(CNT-ND-(Eng)) “...he humiliated himself, having become obedient up to ( the ) death, but a death of a cross.

(CNT-SD-(Eng)) “...he humbled himself, having become obedient even unto the death, but unto death of the cross...”

(EWB-CB) “...And being found in figure as a man, He humbled Himself, becoming obedient as far as death, even the death of the cross...”

(Diaglott-NT) “...and in condition being found as a man; humbled himself, having become obedient till death, of a death even of a cross...”

(ERV) “...he humbled himself by being fully obedient to God, even when that caused his death--death on a cross...”

(GNB) “...He was humble and walked the path of obedience all the way to death--- his death on the cross...”

(GSNT) “...When he had assumed human form, he still further humbled himself and carried his obedience so far as to die, and to die upon the cross...”

(Moffatt NT) “...and appearing in human form, he humbly stooped in his obedience even to die, and to die upon the cross...” 

 

Yes it is understanding Jesus role as “...A GREAT HIGH PRIEST...” that will help us to understand Clements coments above in chapter 2, but also througout the rest of his letter. 



Compare the following:

(HEBREWS 2:5-3:6; NWT): “...For [5.] it is not to angels that he has subjected the inhabited earth to come, about which we are speaking. [6.] But a certain witness has given proof somewhere, saying: “What is man that you keep him in mind, or [the] son of man that you take care of him? [7.] You made him a little lower than angels; with glory and honor you crowned him, and appointed him over the works of your hands. [8.] All things you subjected under his feet.” For in that he subjected all things to him [God] left nothing that is not subject to him. Now, though, we do not yet see all things in subjection to him; [9.] but we behold Jesus, who has been made a little lower than angels, crowned with glory and honor - ( for having suffered death ), - that he by God’s undeserved kindness might taste death for every [man]. [10.] FOR IT WAS FITTING FOR THE ONE FOR WHOSE SAKE ALL THINGS ARE AND THROUGH WHOM ALL THINGS ARE, IN BRINGING MANY SONS TO GLORY, - ( TO MAKE ) - THE CHIEF AGENT OF THEIR SALVATION - ( PERFECT THROUGH SUFFERINGS ). [11.] For both he who is sanctifying and those who are being sanctified all [stem] from one, and for this cause he is not ashamed to call them “brothers,” [12.] as he says: “I WILL DECLARE - ( YOUR NAME ) - TO MY BROTHERS; IN THE MIDDLE OF [THE] CONGREGATION I WILL PRAISE YOU WITH SONG.” [13.] And again: “I will have my trust in him.” And again: “Look! I and the young children, whom Jehovah gave me.” [14.] Therefore, since the “young children” are sharers of blood and flesh, he also similarly partook of the same things, that through his death he might bring to nothing the one having the means to cause death, that is, the Devil; [15.] and [that] he might emancipate all those who for fear of death were subject to slavery all through their lives. [16.] For he is really not assisting angels at all, but he is assisting Abraham’s seed. [17.] - ( CONSEQUENTLY ) - HE WAS OBLIGED TO BECOME LIKE HIS “BROTHERS” IN ALL RESPECTS, - ( THAT HE MIGHT BECOME ) - A MERCIFUL AND FAITHFUL - ( HIGH PRIEST ) - IN THINGS PERTAINING TO GOD, - ( IN ORDER TO ) - OFFER PROPITIATORY SACRIFICE FOR THE SINS OF THE PEOPLE. [18.] - ( FOR IN THAT ) - HE HIMSELF - ( HAS SUFFERED ) - WHEN BEING PUT TO THE TEST, - ( HE IS ABLE TO ) - COME TO THE AID OF THOSE WHO ARE BEING PUT TO THE TEST. [3:1.] CONSEQUENTLY, HOLY BROTHERS, PARTAKERS OF THE HEAVENLY CALLING, CONSIDER - ( THE APOSTLE AND HIGH PRIEST ) - WHOM WE CONFESS—JESUS. [2.] He was faithful to the One that made him such, as Moses was also in all the house of that One. [3.] For the latter is counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who constructs it has more honor than the house. [4.] Of course, every house is constructed by someone, but he that constructed all things is God. [5.] And Moses as an attendant was faithful in all the house of that One as a testimony of the things that were to be spoken afterwards, [6.] but Christ [was faithful] as a Son over the house of that One. We are the house of that One, if we make fast our hold on our freeness of speech and our boasting over the hope firm to the end...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(HEBREWS 4:14-5:10; NWT): “...Seeing, [14.] therefore, that we have [Gk., ( ἀρχιερέα μέγαν )] - ( A GREAT HIGH PRIEST ) - who has passed through the heavens, JESUS THE SON OF GOD, let us hold onto [our] confessing of [him]. [15.] For we have as high priest, not one who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who has been tested in all respects like ourselves, but without sin. [16.] Let us, therefore, approach with freeness of speech to the throne of undeserved kindness, that we may obtain mercy and find undeserved kindness for help at the right time. [5:1.] For every high priest taken from among men is appointed in behalf of men over the things pertaining to God, that he may offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. [2.] He is able to deal moderately with the ignorant and erring ones since he also is surrounded with his own weakness, [3.] and on its account he is obliged to make offerings for sins as much for himself as for the people. [4.] Also, a man takes this honor, not of his own accord, but only when he is called by God, just as Aaron also [was]. [5.] So too the Christ did not glorify himself by becoming a high priest, but [was glorified by him] who spoke with reference to him: “You are my son; I, today, I have become your father.” [6.] Just as he says also in another place: “You are a priest forever according to the manner of Mel·chiz′e·dek.” [7.] In the days of his flesh [Christ] offered up supplications and also petitions to the One who was able to save him out of death, with strong outcries and tears, and he was favorably heard for his godly fear. [8.] ALTHOUGH HE WAS A SON, HE LEARNED OBEDIENCE - ( FROM ) - THE THINGS - ( HE SUFFERED ); [9.] and after he had been made perfect he became responsible for everlasting salvation to all those obeying him, [10.] because he has been specifically called by God a high priest according to the manner of Mel·chiz′e·dek...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(ISAIAH 53:11 NWT): “...Because of the trouble of his soul he will see, he will be satisfied. By means of his knowledge the righteous one, my servant, will bring a righteous standing to many people; and their errors he himself will bear...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(HEBREWS 7:18-8:6; NWT): “...Certainly, [18.] then, there occurs a setting aside of the preceding commandment on account of its weakness and ineffectiveness. [19.] For the Law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in besides of a better hope did, through which we are drawing near to God. [20.] Also, to the extent that it was not without a sworn oath, [21.] (for there are indeed men that have become priests without a sworn oath, but there is one with an oath sworn by the One who said respecting him: “Jehovah has sworn (and he will feel no regret), ‘You are a priest forever,’”) [22.] to that extent also Jesus has become the one given in pledge of a better covenant. [23.] Furthermore, many had to become priests [in succession] because of being prevented by death from continuing as such, [24.] BUT HE - ( BECAUSE OF ) - CONTINUING ALIVE FOREVER - HAS HIS PRIESTHOOD WITHOUT ANY SUCCESSORS. [25.] CONSEQUENTLY HE IS ABLE ALSO TO SAVE COMPLETELY THOSE WHO ARE APPROACHING GOD - ( THROUGH ) - HIM, - ( BECAUSE ) - HE IS ALWAYS ALIVE - ( TO PLEAD FOR THEM ). [26.] For such a high priest as this was suitable for us, loyal, guileless, undefiled, separated from the sinners, and become higher than the heavens. [27.] He does not need daily, as those high priests do, to offer up sacrifices, first for his own sins and then for those of the people: (for this he did once for all time when he offered himself up;) [28.] for the Law appoints men high priests having weakness, but the word of the sworn oath that came after the Law appoints a Son, who is perfected forever. [8:1.] Now as to the things being discussed this is the main point: We have such a high priest as this, and he has sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, [2.] a public servant of the holy place and of the true tent, which Jehovah put up, and not man. [3.] For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices; wherefore it was necessary for this one also to have something to offer. [4.] If, now, he were upon earth, he would not be a priest, there being [men] who offer the gifts according to the Law, [5.] but which [men] are rendering sacred service in a typical representation and a shadow of the heavenly things; just as Moses, when about to make the tent in completion, was given the divine command: For says he: “See that you make all things after [their] pattern that was shown to you in the mountain.” [6.] But now [Jesus] has obtained a more excellent public service, so that he is also the mediator of a correspondingly better covenant, which has been legally established upon better promises...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(HEBREWS 9:11-14 NWT): “...However, [11.] when Christ came as a high priest of the good things that have come to pass, through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, [12.] he entered, no, not with the blood of goats and of young bulls, but with his own blood, once for all time into the holy place and obtained an everlasting deliverance [for us]. [13.] For if the blood of goats and of bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkled on those who have been defiled sanctifies to the extent of cleanness of the flesh, [14.] HOW MUCH MORE WILL THE BLOOD OF THE CHRIST, WHO - ( THROUGH ) - AN EVERLASTING SPIRIT - ( OFFERED HIMSELF ) - WITHOUT BLEMISH - ( TO ) - GOD, cleanse our consciences from dead works that we may render sacred service to [the] living God?...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(HEBREWS 9:23-28 NWT): “...Therefore [23.] it was necessary that the typical representations of the things in the heavens should be cleansed by these means, but the heavenly things themselves with sacrifices that are better than such sacrifices. [24.] FOR CHRIST ENTERED, NOT INTO A HOLY PLACE MADE WITH HANDS, WHICH IS A COPY OF THE REALITY, BUT INTO HEAVEN ITSELF, NOW - ( TO APPEAR BEFORE ) - ( THE PERSON OF GOD ) - FOR - US. [25.] Neither is it in order that he should offer himself often, as indeed the high priest enters into the holy place from year to year with blood not his own. [26.] Otherwise, he would have to suffer often from the founding of the world. But now he has manifested himself once for all time at the conclusion of the systems of things to put sin away through the sacrifice of himself. [27.] And as it is reserved for men to die once for all time, but after this a judgment, [28.] so also the Christ was offered once for all time to bear the sins of many; and the second time that he appears it will be apart from sin and to those earnestly looking for him for [their] salvation...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(HEBREWS 10:5-31 NWT): “...Hence when he comes into the world he says: “‘Sacrifice and offering you did not want, but you prepared a body for me. [6.] You did not approve of whole burnt offerings and sin [offering].’ [7.] THEN I SAID, ‘LOOK! I AM COME (IN THE ROLL OF THE BOOK IT IS WRITTEN ABOUT ME) TO DO YOUR WILL, O GOD.’” [8.] After first saying: “You did not want nor did you approve of sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin [offering]”—[sacrifices] that are offered according to the Law— [9.] then he actually says: “LOOK! I AM COME TO DO YOUR WILL.” He does away with what is first that he may establish what is second. [10.] - ( BY ) - THE SAID - ( “WILL” ) - WE HAVE BEEN SANCTIFIED - ( THROUGH ) - THE OFFERING OF THE BODY OF JESUS CHRIST ONCE FOR ALL TIME. [11.] Also, every priest takes his station from day to day to render public service and to offer the same sacrifices often, as these are at no time able to take sins away completely. [12.] But this [man] offered one sacrifice for sins perpetually and sat down at the right hand of God, [13.] from then on awaiting until his enemies should be placed as a stool for his feet. [14.] For it is by one [sacrificial] offering that he has made those who are being sanctified perfect perpetually. [15.] Moreover, the holy spirit also bears witness to us, for after it has said: [16.] “‘This is the covenant that I shall covenant toward them after those days,’ says Jehovah. ‘I will put my laws in their hearts, and in their minds I shall write them,’” [17.] [it says afterwards:] “And I shall by no means call their sins and their lawless deeds to mind anymore.” [18.] Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer an offering for sin. [19.] Therefore, brothers, since we have boldness for the way of entry into the holy place by the blood of Jesus, [20.] which he inaugurated for us as a new and living way through the curtain, that is, his flesh, [21.] and since we have a great priest over the house of God, [22.] let us approach with true hearts in the full assurance of faith, having had our hearts sprinkled from a wicked conscience and our bodies bathed with clean water. [23.] Let us hold fast the public declaration of our hope without wavering, for he is faithful that promised. [24.] And let us consider one another to incite to love and fine works, [25.] not forsaking the gathering of ourselves together, as some have the custom, but encouraging one another, and all the more so as YOU behold the day drawing near. [26.] For if we practice sin willfully after having received the accurate knowledge of the truth, there is no longer any sacrifice for sins left, [27.] but [there is] a certain fearful expectation of judgment and [there is] a fiery jealousy that is going to consume those in opposition. [28.] Any man that has disregarded the law of Moses dies without compassion, upon the testimony of two or three. [29.] Of how much more severe a punishment, do YOU think, will the man be counted worthy who has trampled upon the Son of God and who has esteemed as of ordinary value the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and who has outraged the spirit of undeserved kindness with contempt? [30.] For we know him that said: “Vengeance is mine; I will recompense”; and again: “Jehovah will judge his people.” [31.] It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of [the] living God...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(HEBREWS 13:10-16 NWT): “...We [10.] have an altar from which those who do sacred service at the tent have no authority to eat. [11.] For the bodies of those animals whose blood is taken into the holy place by the high priest for sin are burned up outside the camp. [12.] HENCE JESUS ALSO, THAT HE MIGHT SANCTIFY THE PEOPLE WITH HIS OWN BLOOD, - ( SUFFERED ) - OUTSIDE THE GATE. [13.] Let us, then, go forth to him outside the camp, bearing the reproach he bore, [14.] for we do not have here a city that continues, but we are earnestly seeking the one to come. [15.] - ( THROUGH ) - HIM - LET US ALWAYS - ( OFFER ) - ( TO ) - GOD A SACRIFICE OF PRAISE, THAT IS, THE FRUIT OF LIPS WHICH MAKE PUBLIC DECLARATION TO HIS NAME. [16.] Moreover, do not forget the doing of good and the sharing of things with others, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

(HEBREWS 13:20-21 NWT): “...Now [20.] may the God of peace, who brought up from the dead the great shepherd of the sheep with the blood of an everlasting covenant, our Lord Jesus, [21.] equip YOU with every good thing to do his will, PERFORMING - ( IN ) - US - ( THROUGH ) - JESUS CHRIST - THAT WHICH IS WELL-PLEASING IN - ( HIS ) - SIGHT; to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen...” - (New World Translation Of The Holy Scriptures 1985.)

It is interesting that it is reported by Eusebius, the historian, that Clement of Rome was said to have actually translated the book of Hebrews from it's original Hebrew language into Greek for the benefit of Gentile readers.

EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA (circa. 260-340 C.E. ):...Thus [1.] Ignatius has done in the epistles which we have mentioned,[933] and Clement in his epistle which is accepted by all, and which he wrote in the name of the church of Rome to the church of Corinth.[934] In this epistle he gives many thoughts drawn from the Epistle to the Hebrews, and also quotes verbally some of its expressions, thus showing most plainly that it is not a recent production. [2.] Wherefore it has seemed reasonable to reckon it with the other writings of the apostle. For as Paul had written to the Hebrews in his native tongue, some say that the evangelist Luke, others that this Clement himself, translated the epistle.[935]...” - (Book 6, Chapter 38:1-2; The Epistle of Clement and the Writings falsely ascribed to him. ANF Series Edited by Roberts & Donaldson.)
[FOOTNOTE 933]: In chap. 36, above.
[FOOTNOTE 934]: See above, chap. 16.
[FOOTNOTE 935]: On the Epistle to the Hebrews and the various traditions as to its authorship, see above, chap. 3, note 17.

A note of caution must be made, that Eusebius also says above that Luke was a translator of the book of Hebrews as well.

It is possible that, perhaps, Luke translated it first, and also Clement did his own translation in addition to Luke's. 

And it is not impossible for translators to be working independently, on the same works, in different locations, unknown to each other, even perhaps, at the same time. 

It is also possible that Clement did an independent translation just a fraction later than Luke, and thus (perhaps) accounting for the confusion and the two different traditions in early times.

Either way, there is an early tradition linking Clement of Rome with the translating of the book of Hebrews for Gentile Christians in the early Sub-Apostolic Age.

And this is the real key to understanding ( who ) Clement is talking when he speaks of "...his sufferings..." and this is reflected in the book of Hebrews when it shows Christ as our “...GREAT HIGH PRIEST...” ( note a Priest is always a worshipper of God ) who was trained by his “...sufferings...” for this particular role.


POINT 6 – A CORRUPT ANF TEXT AND ITS INFLUENCE


Of course the real reason for this claim as a “...Deity of Christ...” or “...Tri{3}nity...” proof text, rests upon a cross reference in one of the four varying versions of the mutilated epistles which have come down to us under the name of Gk., ( Ἰγνάτιος ) “Ignatius” of Antioch, also known as Gk., ( Θεοφόρος ) “Theophorus.”

Here is the passage appealed to in both the MIDDLE RECENSION and the LONG RECENSION in Greek:

MIDDLE GREEK: “...Ἐπιτρέψατέ μοι μιμητὴν εἶναι τοῦ πάθους τοῦ θεοῦ μου..” - (Ad Rom. 6:3; MPG.)

IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH (circa. 30-107-117[?] C.E.): “...Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God...” - (Ad Rom. 6:1-3; [ MIDDLE RECENSION ] The Ante-Nicene Fathers; Roberts and Donaldson, Editors; American Reprint of The Edinburgh Edition; Wm.B. Eerdman Publishers, 1967.

LONG GREEK: “...Ἐπιτρέψατέ μοι μιμητὴν εἶναι πάθους Χριστοῦ [τοῦ θεοῦ μου]...” - (Page 51, Ad Rom. 6:3; CORPUS IGNATIUM: A Complete Collection Of The IGNATIAN EPISTLES Genuine, Interpolated, And Spurious ; Together With Numerous Extracts From Them, As Quoted By Ecclesiastical Writers Down To The Tenth Century IN SYRIAC, GREEK, AND LATIN : An English Translation Of The Syriac Text, Copious Notes, And Introduction, By William Cureton, M. A. F. R. S. Chaplin In The Ordinary To Her Majesty The Queen. LONDON : Francis & John Rivington, ST. Paul's Church Yard, And Waterloo Place. M DCCC XLIX.)

IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH (circa. 30-107-117[?] C.E.): “...Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of Christ, my God...” - (Ad Rom. 6:1-3; [ LONG RECENSION ] The Ante-Nicene Fathers; Roberts and Donaldson, Editors; American Reprint of The Edinburgh Edition; Wm.B. Eerdman Publishers, 1967.)

You will note, that the reading Gk., ( τοῦ θεοῦ μου ) literally: “...( of ) the God ( of ) me...” in Curetons text is in brackets, [ ], meaning it is either:

  1. A corruption of the text and therefore not considered genuine - or
  2. Variants exist in the Long Recension MSS's and the text is at the very least doubtful.

In other words it is TEXTUALLY SUSPECT!

Which most likely means both the Middle and Long Recension of the text has been tampered with, and was probably Gk., ( πάθους Χριστοῦ ) “...passion ( of ) Christ...” in the original.

Which, if was the case, would indeed agree with the genuine reading of 1st Clement 2:1.

In 1st Clement Gk., ( τοῦ θεοῦ ) was a deliberate changing of the text and in the Long Recension of Ignatius Gk., ( τοῦ θεοῦ μου ) was a straight out addition to the text and in the Middle Recension of Ignatius - you can have no doubt that Gk., ( Χριστοῦ ) was simply removed and Gk., ( τοῦ θεοῦ ) was added to the text in it's place.

This author considers the theory that “...God...” himself suffered on the torture stake, which is actually a Modalist view of God, (which is not considered Orthodox Tri{3}nitarian theology anyway), is not the true reading of 1st Clement 2:1 nor of Igantius of Antioch and that the ( mutilated versions ) of Ignatius that have come down are definitely not trustworthy witnesses in any way at all.

So in this case 1st Clement Chapter 2:1, we see, the so-called ( main authority ) for a Suspect Textual Variant rests upon ( yet another ) Textually Suspect Passage in a highly corrupted version of another ANF writer, which just happens to be THEE most mutilated and dodgy and butchered version out of all ANF writers put together.

Anyone in their right mind ( should be ) put on guard by the fact that there a several different “...versions...” or “...recension's...” to chose from of Ignatius.

Also just the title of William Curetons translation and text should let anyone know this writer has definitely been tampered with by Tri{3}nitarians:

...( Collection Of ) The Ignatian Epistles Genuine, ( Interpolated, And Spurious )...”

These writings that claim to be the original Ignatius of Antioch, are highly untrustworthy and should ( never ever ) be used as a measure or yard stick for the ( true teachings ) of the Sub-Apostolic age!

They are at the absolute bottom of the scale as to textual integrity.


LAST POINT = A SUMMARY


So in summary, it is obvious that Clement of Rome did not believe “...God...” suffered on the torture stake. 

One has to ask ( why ) so many translators still translated "...( of ) God..." despite it being the minority reading anyway? 

And the answer is obvious - that there is a certain amount of theological ( bias ), but it is also because of ( fear )!

JAMES R. WHITE: “...[The Trinity] is the topic we don't want to talk about: no one dares question the Trinity for ( fear ) of being branded a “heretic,” yet we have all sorts of questions about it, and we aren't sure who we can ask...” - (Page 14, "The Forgotten Trinity," by James R. White, emphasis mine).

( Fear ) that is a residue from the Dark Ages of Inquisitions and torture and burnings at the stake for questioning any doctrine of church, especially the "...Tri{3}nity..."!

But in spite of this the manuscript evidence, the geographical evidence and the scriptural evidence is ( clear ) and ( overwhelming ) that:

Gk., ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ )
...( of ) the Christ...”

or

Ltn., ( Xpisti )
...( of ) Christ...”


Is the oldest, most wide spread, original, and without a doubt the genuine reading in Chapter 2:1.

And the teaching that “...God...” suffered on the torture stake is really based on a forged or retro-fitted and corrupt version of Ignatius of Antioch and a corrupted text in the Codex Alexandrinus and a self confessed corrupter of the ANF – Rufinus!

What an utterly rotten foundation for a doctrine!

If you believe in the Tri{3}nity and you think the earliest ANF believed, preached, and taught this doctrine, I suggest very strongly that you re-evaluate your doctrinal stance, thinking and religion - ( seriously ) - and come out of the darkness and into the light!

I leave you with a couple of surplus quotes to think about:

ALVAN LAMSON (circa. 1792-1864 C.E.): “...This passage is the ( sole straw ) to which those can cling who maintain that Clement of Rome believed in the ( deity ) of Christ ; a notion in ( direct – contradiction ) to the whole tenor of his language in every other part of his Epistle...” - (Page 5- , FOOTNOTE 9, Preliminary Chapter, 'Writings Ascribed To The Apostolical Fathers So Called' THE CHURCH FIRST THREE CENTURIES: OR, NOTICES OF THE LIVES AND OPINIONS OF SOME OF THE EARLY FATHERS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY; ILLUSTRATING ITS LATE ORIGIN AND GRADUAL FORMATION. BY ALVAN LAMSON, 1875.)

ALONZO ROSECRANS STARK (circa. 1866-? C.E.): “...Our author, moreover, in no other place calls Christ Gk., ( θέος ). In 2:1, Clement says: “...And ye were all lowly in mind and free from arrogance, yeilding rather than claiming submission, more glad to give than to receive, and content with provisions which ( Christ ) supplieth. And giving heed unto his words, ye laid them up diligently in your hearts, and ( his – sufferings ) were before your eyes...” Here Scherer identifies Christ with God, and then reasons that Christ is the creator of all things, “...and consequently un-created and therefore God...” While the reading here - ( is in despute ), - Gebhardt, Harnack, and Zahn read Gk., ( τοῦ Χριστοῦ ), the reading for which Scherer contends. But in vs. 3 the subject changes to “...Al-Mighty God...” as the object of Christians' prayer, and there is little justification for thinking that Clement intends to apply Gk., ( θεός ) to Christ. The two persons are constantly kept clearly distinct...” - (Page 22-23, Chapter 1, Subheading “The Christology In The First Epistle Of Clement,” Section I, “The Relation Of Christ To God,” Sub-Section (2a) “The Power Of Christ,” THE CHRISTOLOGY IN THE APOSTLOIC FATHERS by Alonzo Rosecrans Stark, 1912.)

ALVAN LAMSON (circa. 1792-1864 C.E.): “...An argument for the ( deity ) of Christ, founded on the misconception of a passage in Clement's Epistle, is thus disposed of by a writer in the Christian Examiner for May, 1860: “...Nor does Clement anywhere use the expression 'the passion of God,' or ( anything like it ). The passage referred to is cap. 2 of his genuine Epistle to the Corinthians, where we have the expression Gk., ( τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ, - τοῦ θεοῦ ) indeed being the nearest antecedent. If we insist that he wrote with strict grammatical accuracy, and reject the conjectural emendation of Junius (Young), a Trinitarian, of Gk., ( μαθήματα ) for Gk., ( παθήματα ), (the Epistle being extant in but a single manuscript), we simply make Clement a ( Patripassian ); for the term Gk., ( θεός ) in every other passage of the Epistle unquestionably denotes the ( Father ). But even Dorner, in his great work (Lehre von der Person Christi, I. 139), says that he “...does not venture to use this passage as a proof that Clement calls Christ God...” He adopts the easy supposition of a negligent use of the pronoun Gk., ( αὐτός ), referring to Christ in the mind of the writer, though not named in the immediately preceeding context. The same view of the passage is taken by Bunsen, Hippolytus and his Age, I. 46, note, 2d ed.; by Martini, Versuch, etc., p. 24, note; and by Reuss, Theologie Chretienne, ii. 326, 2d ed. Of this use of Gk., ( αὐτός ) we have another remarkable example in Clement, c. 36, and it is not uncommon in the New Testament, especially in the writings of John ; see Winer, Gram. 22. 3. 4, 6th ed., and Robinson's N. T. Lex., article Gk., ( αὐτός ), 2. b. ad fin. This passage is the sole straw to which those can cling who maintain that Clement of Rome believed in the ( deity ) of Christ ; a notion in ( direct – contradiction ) to the whole tenor of his language in every other part of his Epistle...” – pp. 466, 467...” - (Page 5- , FOOTNOTE 9, Preliminary Chapter, 'Writings Ascribed To The Apostolical Fathers So Called' THE CHURCH FIRST THREE CENTURIES: OR, NOTICES OF THE LIVES AND OPINIONS OF SOME OF THE EARLY FATHERS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY; ILLUSTRATING ITS LATE ORIGIN AND GRADUAL FORMATION. BY ALVAN LAMSON, 1875.)