Friday, February 17, 2012

THE ORIGINAL LATIN TEXT AND CONJECTURED CRITICAL VERSION WITH MULTIPLE ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE MURATORIAN FRAGMENT OR CANON (circa. 180 C.E.)




Picture of Page One of the Original Latin MSS Online:

Picture of Page Two of the Original Latin MSS Online :

Picture of Page Three of the Original Latin MSS Online :



Bible Muratorian Fragment






ORIGINAL LATIN TEXT: “...Quibus [1.] tamen interfuit et ita posuit. [2.] tertio euangelii librum secundo lucan [3.] lucas iste medicus [4.] post ascensum xri. [5.] cum eo paulus quasi ut iuris studiosum [6.] secundum adsumsisset numeni suo ex opinione concripset [7.] dnm tamen nec ipse d uidit in carne [8.] et ide prout asequi potuit. [9.] ita et ad natiuitate iohannis incipet dicere, [10.] quarti euangeliorum iohannis ex decipolis [11.] cohortantibus condescipulis et eps suis dixit [12.] conieiunate mihi. odie triduo [13.] et quid cuique fuerit reuelatum alterutrum nobis ennarremus [14.] eadem nocte reuelatum andreae ex apostolis ut recogniscentibus cuntis iohannis suo nomine cuncta discriberet [15.] et ideo licit uaria sinculis euangeliorum libris principia doceantur [16.] nihil tamen differt credentium fidei [17.] cum uno ac principali spu declarate sint in omnibus omnia [18.] de natiuitate de passione de resurrectione de conuersatione cum decipulis suis [19.] ac de gemino eius aduentu primo in humilitate dispectus quod fotu secundum potestate regali preclarum quod foturum est. [20.] quid ergo mirum si iohannes tam constanter sincula etia in epistulis suis proferam dicens in semeipsu [21.] quae uidimus oculis nostris et auribus audiuimus et manus nostrae palpauerunt haec scripsimus uobis [22.] sic enim non solum uisurem sed & auditorem sed & scriptore omnium mirabiliu dni per ordinem profetetur [23.] acta aute omniu apostolorum sub uno libro scribta sunt [24.] lucas obtime theofile conprindit quia sub praesentia eius singula gerebantur [25.] sicute et semote passione petri euidenter declarat [26.] sed & profectione pauli ab urbe ad spania proficescentis [27.] epistulae autem pauli quae a quo loco uel qua ex causa directe sint uolentatibus intellegere ipse declarant [28.] primu omnium corintheis scysmae heresis interdicens [29] deinceps b callatis circumcisione [30.] romanis aute ornidine scripturarum sed et principium earum osd esse xpm intimans prolexius scripsit [31.] de quibus sincolis necesse est ad nobis desputari [32.] cum ipse beatus apostolus paulus sequens prodecessuris sui iohannis ordine non nisi nomenati semptae ecclesiis scribat ordine tali [33.] a corenthios prima. ad efesius seconda ad philippinses tertia ad colosensis quarta ad calatas quinta ad tensaolenicinsis sexta. ad romanos septima [34.] uerum corentheis et thesaolecensibus licet pro correbtione iteretur [35.] una tamen per omnem orbem terrae ecclesia deffusa esse denoscitur [36.] et iohannis eni in apocalebsy licet septe eccleseis scribat tamen omnibus dicit [37.] ueru ad filemonem una et at titu una et ad tymotheu duas pro affecto et dilectione [38.] in honore tamen eclesiae catholice in ordinatione eclesiastice descepline scificate sunt. [39.] Fertur etiam ad laudecenses alia ad alexandrinos pauli nomine fincte ad heresem marcionis [40.] et alia plura quae in chatholicam eclesiam recepi non potest fel enim cum melle misceri non concruit [41.] epistola sane iude et superscrictio iohannis duas in catholica habentur [42.] et sapientia ab amicis salomonis in honore ipsius scripta [43.] apocalapse etiam iohanis et petri tantum recipimus quam quidam ex nostris legi in eclesia nolunt [44.] pastorem uero nuperrim ettemporibus nostris in urbe roma herma conscripsit sedente cathetra urbis romae aeclesiae pio eps fratrer eius [45.] et ideo legi eum quide oportet se puplicare uero in eclesia populo [46.] neque inter profetas conpletum numero [47.] neque inter apostolos in fine temporum potest. [48.] arsinoi autem seu ualentini. uel mitiadis nihil in totum recipemus. [49.] qui etiam nouu psalmorum librum marcioni conscripserunt una cum basilide assianom catafry cum constitutorem...” - (Pages 106-113, “Theron in Evidence of Tradition,”.)

RESTORED OR CONJECTORED LATIN TEXT: “...Quibus [1.] tamen interfuit et ita posuit. [2.] tertium euangelii librum secundum Lucam. [3.] Lucas iste medicus [4.] post ascensum Christi [5.] cum eum Paulus quasi itineris sui socium [6.] secum adsumsisset nomine suo ex opinione conscripsit — [7.] Dominum tamen nec ipse uidit in carne [8.] et idem prout assequi potuit: [9.] ita et a nativitate Iohannis incepit dicere. [10.] quarti euangeliorum Iohannis ex discipulis. [11.] cohortantibus condiscipulis et episcopis suis dixit [12.] Conieiunate mihi hodie triduum, [13.] et quid cuique fuerit reuelatum alteratrum nobis enarremus. [14.] eadem nocte reuelatum Andreae ex apostolis, ut recognoscentibus cunctis, Iohannes suo nomine cuncta describeret. [15.] et ideo licet varia singulis euangeliorum libris principia doceantur [16.] nihil tamen differt credentium fidei, [17.] cum uno ac principali spiritu declarata sint in omnibus omnia [18.] de natiuitate, de passione, de resurrectione, de conuersatione cum discipulis suis, [19.] et de gemino eius aduentu, primum in humilitate despectus, quod fuit, secundum potestate regali praeclarum, quod futurum est. [20.] quid ergo mirum, si Iohannes tam constanter singula etiam in epistolis suis proferat dicens in semetipso [21.] Quae uidimus oculis nostris, et auribus audiuimus, et manus nostrae palpauerunt, haec scripsimus uobis? [22.] Sic enim non solum uisorem, sed et auditorem, sed et scriptorem omnium mirabilium Domini per ordinem profitetur. [23.] Acta autem omnium apostolorum sub uno libro scripta sunt. [24.] Lucas "optimo Theophilo" comprehendit, quae sub praesentia eius singula gerebantur, [25.] sicut et remote passionem Petri evidenter declarat, [26.] sed et profectionem Pauli ab urbe ad Spaniam proficiscentis. [27.] Epistolae autem Pauli, quae, a quo loco, uel qua ex causa directae sint, uolentibus intelligere ipsae declarant. [28.] primum omnium Corinthiis schisma haeresis interdicens, [29.] deinceps Galatis circumcisionem, [30.] Romanis autem ordine scripturarum, sed et principium earum esse Christum intimans, prolixius scripsit; [31.] de quibus singulis necesse est a nobis disputari; [32.] cum ipse beatus Apostolus Paulus sequens prodecessoris sui Iohannis ordinem, nonnisi nominatim septem ecclesiis scribat ordine tali: [33.] ad Corinthios prima, ad Ephesios secunda, ad Philippenses tertia, ad Colossenses quarta, ad Galatas quinta, ad Thessalonicensibus sexta, ad Romanos septima. [34.] uerum Corinthiis, et Thessalonicensibus licet pro correptione iteretur, [35.] una tamen per omnem orbem terrae ecclesia diffusa esse denoscitur. [36.] et Iohannes enim in Apocalypsi licet septem ecclesiis scribat, tamen omnibus dicit. [37.] uerum ad Philemonem unam, et ad Titum unam, et ad Timotheum duas pro affectu et dilectione; [38.] in honore tamen ecclesiae catholicae in ordinatione ecclesiasticae disciplinae sanctificatae sunt. [39.] fertur etiam ad Laodicenses, alia ad Alexandrinos, Pauli nomine fictae ad haeresem Marcionis, [40.] et alia plura, quae in catholicam ecclesiam recipi non potest; fel enim cum melle misceri non congruit. [41.] Epistola san Iudae, et superscriptio Iohannis duas in catholica habentur; [42.] et Sapientia ab amicis Salomonis in honorem ipsius scripta. [43.] apocalypses etiam Iohannis, et Petri, tantum recipimus, quam quidam ex nostris legi in ecclesia nolunt. [44.] Pastorem uero nuperrime temporibus nostris in Urbe Roma Hermas conscripsit, sedente cathedra Urbis Romae ecclesiae Pio Episcopo fratre eius; [45.] et ideo legi eum quidem oportet, se publicare uero in ecclesia populo, [46.] neque inter Prophetas, completum numero, [47.] neque inter apostolos, in finem temporum potest. [48.] Arsinoi autem, seu Ualentini, uel Mitiadis nihil in totum recipimus. [49.] qui etiam nouum Psalmorum librum Marcioni concripserunt una cum Basilide Assianum Catafrygum constitutorem...” - (Pages 106-113, “Theron in Evidence of Tradition,”.)

RESTORED OR CONJECTORED LATIN TEXT: “...Quibus [1.] tamen interfuit et ita posuit [2.] tertio evangelii librum secundo lucan [3.] lucas iste medicus post ascensum XPi [4.] cum eo paulus quasi ut juris studiosum [5.] secundum adsumsisset numeni suo [6.] ex opinione conscripset dnm tamen nec ipse [7.] vidit in carne et ide prout asequi potuit [8.] ita et ad nativitate iohannis incipet dicere. [9.] quarti evangeliorum iohannis ex decipolis. [10.] cohortantibus condescipulis et eps suis [11.] dixit conieiunate mihi odie triduo et quid [12.] cuique fuerit revelatum alterutrum [13.] nobis ennarremus eadem nocte reve [14.] latum andreae ex apostolis ut recognis [15.] centibus cuntis iohannis suo nomine [16.] cuncta describeret et ideo licet varia sin [17.] culis evangeliorum libris principia [18.] doceantur nihil tamen differt creden [19.] tium fidei cum uno ac principali spu de [20.] clarata sint in omnibus omnia de nativi [21.] tate de passione de resurrectione [22.] de conversatione cum decipulis suis [23.] ac de gemino eius adventu [24.] primo in humilitate dispectus quod fo[25.] it secundum potestate regali ... pre [26.] clarum quod foturum est quid ergo [27.] mirum si iohannes tam constanter [28.] sincula etia in epistulis suis proferam [29.] dicens in semeipsu quae vidimus oculis [30.] nostris et auribus audivimus et manus [31.] nostrae palpaverunt haec scripsimus vobis [32.] sic enim non solum visurem sed et auditorem [33.] sed et scriptore omnium mirabiliu dni per ordi [34.] nem proftetur acta aute omniu apostolorum [35.] sub uno libro scribta sunt lucas obtime theofi [36.] le comprindit quia sub praesentia eius sincula [37.] gerebantur sicuti et semote passione petri [38.] evidenter declarat sed et profectione pauli ab ur [39.] be ad spania proficiscentis epistulae autem [40.] pauli quae a quo loco vel qua ex causa directe [41.] sint volentibus intellegere ipse declarant [42.] primu omnium corintheis scysmae heresis in [43.] terdicens deinceps b callaetis circumcisione [44.] romanis aute ordine scripturarum sed et [45.] principium earum ... esse XPm intimans [46.] prolexius scripsit de quibus sincolis neces [47.] se est ad nobis disputari cum ipse beatus [48.] apostolus paulus sequens prodecessoris sui [49.] iohannis ordine non nisi nominati sempte [50.] ecclesiis scribat ordine tali a corenthios [51.] prima ad efesius seconda ad philippinses ter [52.] tia ad colosensis quarta ad calatas quin [53.] ta ad tensaolenecinsis sexta ad romanos [54.] septima verum corintheis et thesaolecen [55.] sibus licet pro correbtione iteretur una [56.] tamen per omnem orbem terrae ecclesia [57.] deffusa esse denoscitur et iohannis eni in a [58.] pocalebsy licet septe eccleseis scribat [59.] tamen omnibus dicit veru ad filemonem una [60.] et at titu una et ad tymotheu duas pro affec [61.] to et dilectione in honore tamen eclesiae ca [62.] tholice in ordinatione eclesiastice [63.] discepline scificate sunt fertur etiam ad [64.] laudecenses alia ad alexandrinos pauli no [65.] mine fincte ad heresem marcionis et alia plu [66.] ra quae in catholicam eclesiam recepi non [67.] potest fel enim cum melle misceri non con [68.] cruit epistola sane iude et superscrictio [69.] iohannis duas in catholica habentur et sapi [70.] entia ab amicis salomonis in honore ipsius [71.] scripta apocalapse etiam iohanis et pe [72.] tri tantum recipimus quam quidam ex nos [73.] tris legi in eclesia nolunt pastorem vero [74.] nuperrim e temporibus nostris in urbe [75.] roma herma conscripsit sedente cathe [76.] tra urbis romae aecclesiae pio eps fratre [77.] eius et ideo legi eum quide oportet se pu [78.] blicare vero in eclesia populo neque inter [79.] profetas completum numero neque inter [80.] apostolos in fine temporum potest [81.] arsinoi autem seu valentini vel mitiadis [?] [82.] nihil in totum recipemus qui etiam novu [83.] psalmorum librum marcioni conscripse [84.] runt una cum basilide assianom catafry [85.] cum constitutorem...” - (Pages 82-88. Henry M. Gwatkin, ed., Selections from Early Writers Illustrative of Church History to the Time of Constantine London: MacMillan and co., 1937.)

MURATORIAN FRAGMENT OR CANON (circa. 180 C.E.): “...At [1.] which nevertheless he was present, and so he placed [them in his narrative]. {1} [2.] The third book of the Gospel is that according to Luke. [3.] Luke, the well-known physician, after the ascension of Christ, [4-5.] when Paul had taken with him as one zealous for the law, {2} [6.] composed it in his own name, according to [the general] belief. {3} Yet he himself had not [7.] seen the Lord in the flesh; and therefore, as he was able to ascertain events, [8.] so indeed he begins to tell the story from the birth of John. [9.] The fourth of the Gospels is that of John, [one] of the disciples. [10.] To his fellow disciples and bishops, who had been urging him [to write], [11.] he said, 'Fast with me from today to three days, and what [12.] will be revealed to each one [13.] let us tell it to one another.' In the same night it was revealed [14.] to Andrew, [one] of the apostles, [15-16.] that John should write down all things in his own name while all of them should review it. And so, though various [17.] elements {3a} may be taught in the individual books of the Gospels, [18.] nevertheless this makes no difference to the faith of believers, since by the one sovereign {3b} Spirit all things [20.] have been declared in all [the Gospels]: concerning the [21.] nativity, concerning the passion, concerning the resurrection, [22.] concerning life with his disciples, [23.] and concerning his twofold coming; [24.] the first in lowliness when he was despised, which has taken place, [25.] the second glorious in royal power, [26.] which is still in the future. What [27.] marvel is it then, if John so consistently [28.] mentions these particular points also in his Epistles, [29.] saying about himself, 'What we have seen with our eyes [30.] and heard with our ears and our hands [31.] have handled, these things we have written to you? {4} [32.] For in this way he professes [himself] to be not only an eye-witness and hearer, [33.] but also a writer of all the marvelous deeds of the Lord, in their order. [34.] Moreover, the acts of all the apostles [35.] were written in one book. For 'most excellent Theophilus' {5} Luke compiled [36.] the individual events that took place in his presence — [37.] as he plainly shows by omitting the martyrdom of Peter [38.] as well as the departure of Paul from the city [of Rome] {5a} [39.] when he journeyed to Spain. As for the Epistles of [40-1.] Paul, they themselves make clear to those desiring to understand, which ones [they are], from what place, or for what reason they were sent. [42.] First of all, to the Corinthians, prohibiting their heretical schisms; [43.] next, {6} to the Galatians, against circumcision; [44-6.] then to the Romans he wrote at length, explaining the order (or, plan) of the Scriptures, and also that Christ is their principle (or, main theme). {6a} It is necessary [47.] for us to discuss these one by one, since the blessed [48.] apostle Paul himself, following the example of his predecessor [49-50.] John, writes by name to only seven churches in the following sequence: To the Corinthians [51.] first, to the Ephesians second, to the Philippians third, [52.] to the Colossians fourth, to the Galatians fifth, [53.] to the Thessalonians sixth, to the Romans [54-5.] seventh. It is true that he writes once more to the Corinthians and to the Thessalonians for the sake of admonition, [56-7.] yet it is clearly recognizable that there is one Church spread throughout the whole extent of the earth. For John also in the [58.] Apocalypse, though he writes to seven churches, [59-60] nevertheless speaks to all. [Paul also wrote] out of affection and love one to Philemon, one to Titus, and two to Timothy; and these are held sacred [62-3.] in the esteem of the Church catholic for the regulation of ecclesiastical discipline. There is current also [an epistle] to [64.] the Laodiceans, {6b} [and] another to the Alexandrians, {6c} [both] forged in Paul's [65.] name to [further] the heresy of Marcion, and several others [66.] which cannot be received into the catholic Church [67.]— for it is not fitting that gall be mixed with honey. [68.] Moreover, the epistle of Jude and two of the above-mentioned (or, bearing the name of) John are counted (or, used) in the catholic [Church]; {7} and [the book of] Wisdom, [70.] written by the friends {7a} of Solomon in his honour. [71.] We receive only the apocalypses of John and Peter, [72.] {7b} though some of us are not willing that the latter be read in church. [73.] But Hermas wrote the Shepherd [74.] very recently, {7c} in our times, in the city of Rome, [75.] while bishop Pius, his brother, was occupying the [episcopal] chair [76.] of the church of the city of Rome. {7d} [77.] And therefore it ought indeed to be read; but [78.] it cannot be read publicly to the people in church either among [79.] the Prophets, whose number is complete, {8} or among [80.] the Apostles, for it is after [their] time. [81.] But we accept nothing whatever of Arsinous or Valentinus or Miltiades, [82.] who also composed [83.] a new book of psalms for Marcion, [84-5.] together with Basilides, the Asian founder of the Cataphrygians {8a}...” - (Metzger's English translation, amended text, edited by Hans Lietzmann, Das Muratorische Fragment und die Monarchianischen Prologue zu den Evangelien, Kleine Texte, i; Bonn, 1902; 2nd ed., Berlin, 1933. Appendix IV of the same book pp. 305-7. The Canon of the New Testament Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.)
[FOOTNOTE 1]: The meaning may be that Mark arranged the material of his Gospel in the order indicated by Peter, who was participant in the events narrated.
[FOOTNOTE 2]: The reading of the Fragment, quasi ut uris studiosum, 'as so to speak, one zealous for (or, learned in) the law,' has been variously interpreted and/or emended. For example, Routh took iuris as translating του δικαιου, i.e. Luke was studious of righteousness; Buchanan replaced ut iuris with adiutorem, 'assistant'; Bartlet supposed that the translator read νοσου as νομου (Luke was 'a student of disease'); Zahn replaced ut iuris with itineris, thereby referring to Luke's readiness to accompany Paul on his journeys; Lietzmann conjectured litteris, i.e. Luke was well versed as an author. Harnack (Sitzungsberichte der königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften [1903], p. 213) and Ehrhardt (op. cit.), who retain iuris studiosus of the Fragment, have pointed out that in technical language of Roman law this could refer to an assesor or legal expert who served on the staff of a Roman official. Although this title was current prior to the time of Justinian's Digest (published in 533) and so was available to the translator of the Fragment, it is anybody's guess what Greek phrase it represented—assuming, of course, that the Canon was drawn up originally in Greek (unfortunately no help is provided in David Magie, De Romanorum iuris publici sacrisque vocabulis sollemnibus in Graecum sermonem conversis [Leipzig, 1905]).
It is significant that the Latin text of the Fragment appears to have been a source for Chromace of Aquileia, who in his commentary on Matthew (written between 398 and 407) refers to Luke as follows: Dominum in carne non vidit, sed quia eruditissimus legis erat quippe qui comes Pauli apostoli ... (See Joseph Lemarie, 'Saint Chromace d'Aquilee temoin du Canon de Muratori,' Revue des etudes augustiniennes, xxiv [1978], pp. 101-2).
[FOOTNOTE 3]: Here ex opinione is taken as the equivalent of εξ ακοης. Others conjecture ex ordine, representing καθεξης ('orderly sequence.' Luke i.3).
[FOOTNOTE 3a]: Latin, principia. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 3b]: Latin, principali. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: I John i.1-3.
[FOOTNOTE 5]: Luke i.3.
[FOOTNOTE 5a]: That is, the city of Rome. This lack of specificity is one indication that the author was a Roman. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 6]: The letter 'b' in the Latin text before 'Galatians' may belong to 'Corinthians' (προς Κορινθιους Β').
[FOOTNOTE 6a]: Latin, principium. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 6b]: Tregelles writes, “It appears impossible to suppose that the cento of phrases from St. Paul’s genuine Epistles, often found in Latin MSS. under the name of Epistola ad Laodicenses, is here intended. … the writer seems to have intended the Epistle to the Ephesians, which Marcion altered, and to which he gave this name, either as part of his changes, or it may be from having obtained his copy of it from Laodicea.” (p. 47) —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 6c]: Nothing is known of the Epistle to the Alexandrians mentioned here. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 7]: It may be, as Zahn (Geschichte, ii, 66) and others have supposed, that a negative has fallen out of the text here.
[FOOTNOTE 7a]: Tregelles suggests that the Latin translator of this document mistook the Greek Philonos "Philo" for philon "friends." Many in ancient times thought that the so-called "Wisdom of Solomon" was really written by Philo of Alexandria. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 7b]: The Apocalypse of Peter describes with some imaginative detail the torments of hell and the blessings of heaven. It was read with respect and used for admonition throughout the churches in early times. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 7c]: The Shepherd of Hermas is another work widely read in early times. It is a kind of moral allegory, like Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, but more impressive in that it purports to convey a series of divine revelations. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 7d]: This would be Pius I, bishop of Rome from about 142 to 157. —M.D.M.
[FOOTNOTE 8]: Perhaps the Fragmentist means that there are three major Prophets and twelve minor Prophets.
[FOOTNOTE 8a]: The few words that follow this are unintelligible, and so the fragment practically ends here. —M.D.M.

MURATORIAN FRAGMENT OR CANON (circa. 180 C.E.): “...Those [I.] things at which he was present he placed thus.{23} The third book of the Gospel, that according to Luke, the well-known physician Luke wrote in his own name{24} in order after the ascension of Christ, and when Paul had associated him with himself{25} as one studious of right.{26} Nor did he himself see the Lord in the flesh; and he, according as he was able to accomplish it, began{27} his narrative with the nativity of John. The fourth Gospel is that of John, one of the disciples. When his fellow-disciples and bishops entreated him, he said, "Fast ye now with me for the space of three days, and let us recount to each other whatever may be revealed to each of us." On the same night it was revealed to Andrew, one of the apostles, that John should narrate all things in his own name as they called them to mind.{28} And hence, although different points{29} are taught us in the several books of the Gospels, there is no difference as regards the faith of believers, inasmuch as in all of them all things are related under one imperial Spirit,{30} which concern the Lord's nativity, His passion, His resurrection, His conversation with His disciples, and His twofold advent,-the first in the humiliation of rejection, which is now past, and the second in the glory of royal power, which is yet in the future. What marvel is it, then, that John brings forward these several things{31} so constantly in his epistles also, saying in his own person, "What we have seen with our eyes, and heard with our ears, and our hands have handled, that have we written."{32} For thus he professes himself to be not only the eye-witness, but also the hearer; and besides that, the historian of all the wondrous facts concerning the Lord in their order. [II.] Moreover, the Acts of all the Apostles are comprised by Luke in one book, and addressed to the most excellent Theophilus, because these different events took place when he was present himself; and he shows this clearly-i.e., that the principle on which he wrote was, to give only what fell under his own notice-by the omission{33} of the passion of Peter, and also of the journey of Paul, when he went from the city-Rome-to Spain. [III.] As to the epistles{34} of Paul, again, to those who will understand the matter, they indicate of themselves what they are, and from what place or with what object they were directed. He wrote first of all, and at considerable length, to the Corinthians, to check the schism of heresy; and then to the Galatians, to forbid circumcision; and then to the Romans on the rule of the Oid Testament Scriptures, and also to show them that Christ is the first object{35} in these;-which it is needful for us to discuss severally,{36} as the blessed Apostle Paul, following the rule of his predecessor John, writes to no more than seven churches by name, in this order: the first to the Corinthians, the second to the Ephesians, the third to the Philippians, the fourth to the Colossians, the fifth to the Galatians, the sixth to the Thessalonians, the seventh to the Romans. Moreover, though he writes twice to the Corinthians and Thessalonians for their correction, it is yet shown-i.e., by this sevenfold writing-that there is one Church spread abroad through the whole world. And John too, indeed, in the Apocalypse, although he writes only to seven churches, yet addresses all. He wrote, besides these, one to Philemon, and one to Titus, and two to Timothy, in simple personal affection and love indeed; but yet these are hallowed in the esteem of the Catholic Church, and in the regulation of ecclesiastical discipline. There are also in circulation one to the Laodiceans, and another to the Alexandrians, forged under the name of Paul, and addressed against the heresy of Marcion; and there are also several others which cannot be received into the Catholic Church, for it is not suitable for gall to be mingled with honey. [IV.] The Epistle of Jude, indeed,{37} and two belonging to the above-named John-or bearing the name of John-are reckoned among the Catholic epistles. And the book of Wisdom, written by the friends of Solomon in his honour. We receive also the Apocalypse of John and that of Peter, though some amongst us will not have this latter read in the Church. The Pastor, moreover, did Hermas write very recently in our times in the city of Rome, while his brother bishop Plus sat in the chair of the Church of Rome. And therefore it also ought to be read; but it cannot be made public{38} in the Church to the people, nor placed among the prophets, as their number is complete, nor among the apostles to the end of time. Of the writings of Arsinous, called also Valentinus, or of Miltiades, we receive nothing at all. Those are rejected too who wrote the new Book of Psalms for Marcion, together with Basilides and the founder of the Asian Cataphrygians.{39}...” - (Roberts-Donaldson Translation: Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 5, III. - Canon Muratorianus.{22} In Muratori, V. C. Antiq. Ital. Med. oev., vol. iii. col. 854.)
[FOOTNOTE 22]: An acephalous fragment on the canon of the sacred Scriptures,ascribed by some to Caius. This very important fragment [vol. ii. pp. 4 and 56, this series] was discovered by Muiatori in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, and published by him in his Antiquitates Italicaein 1740. This manuscript belongs to the seventh or eighth century. Muratori ascribed it to Caius, Bunsen to Hegesippus; but there is no clue whatever to the authorship. From internal evidence the writer of the fragment is believed to belong to the latter half of the second century. The fragment has been much discussed. For a full account of it, see Westcott's General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, 2d ed. p. 184f., and Tregelies' Canon Muratorianus; [also Routh, Rel., i. pp. 394-434].
[FOOTNOTE 23]: The text is, " quibus tamen interfuit et ita posuit." Westcott omits the " et." Bunsen proposes" ipse non intermit." The reference probably is to the statement of Papias (Euseb., Histor. Eccles., iii. 39) as to Mark's Gospel being a narrative not of what he himself witnessed, but of what he heard from Peter.
[FOOTNOTE 24]: The text gives " numine suo ex opinione concriset," for which we read " nomine suo ex ordine conscripsit" with Westcott.
[FOOTNOTE 25]: Reading" secum" for " secundum."
26]: The text gives " quasi ut juris studiosum," for which " quasi et virtutis studiosum," = "as one devoted to virtue," has been proposed. Bunsen reads "itineris socium" = "as his companion in the way."
[FOOTNOTE 27]: " Incepit" for " incipet."
[FOOTNOTE 28]: Or as they revised them, recognoscentibus.
[FOOTNOTE 29]: Principia. Principali, leading. [Note this theory of inspiration.]
[FOOTNOTE 30]: Singula.
[FOOTNOTE 31]: 1 John i. 1.
[FOOTNOTE 32]: The text is, " semote passionem Petri," etc., for which Westcott reads" semota." [A noteworthy statement.]
[FOOTNOTE 33]: Reading" epistolae" and " directae" instead of " epistola" and " directe," and " volentibus" for " voluntatibus."
[FOOTNOTE 34]: Principium.
[FOOTNOTE 35]: The text is, " de quibus singulis necesse est a nobis disputari cum," etc. Bunsen reads," de quibus non necesse est a nobis disputari cur" = "on which we need not discuss the reason why."
[FOOTNOTE 36]: Sane.
[FOOTNOTE 37]: The text is " in catholica," which may be "in the Catholic Church." Bunsen, Westcott, etc., read " in catholicis."
[FOOTNOTE 38]: Reading "sed publicari" for "se publicare." [ Vol. ii. p. 3.]
[FOOTNOTE 39]: [For remarks of my own on the Muratorian Canon, see vol. ii. p. 56, this series.]

MURATORIAN FRAGMENT OR CANON (circa. 180 C.E.): “...But [1.] he was present among them, and so he put [the facts down in his Gospel.] [2.] The third book of the Gospel [is that] according to Luke. [3.] Luke, "the" physician, [4.] after the ascension of Christ, [5.] when Paul had taken him with him as a companion of his traveling, [6.] [and after he had made] an investigation, wrote in his own name — [7.] but neither did he see the Lord in the flesh — [8.] and thus, as he was able to investigate, [9.] so he also begins to tell the story [starting] from the nativity of John. [10.] The fourth [book] of the Gospels is that of John [one] of the disciples. [11.] When his fellow-disciples and bishops urged [him], he said: [12.] "Fast together with me today for three days [13.] and, what shall be revealed to each, let us tell [it] to each other." [14.] On that same night it was revealed to Andrew, [one] of the Apostles, that, with all of them reviewing [it], John should describe all things in his own name. [15.] And so, although different beginnings might be taught in the separate books of the Gospels, [16.] nevertheless it makes no difference to the faith of believers, [17.] since all things in all [of them] are declared by the one sovereign Spirit — [18.] concering [His] nativity, concering [His] passion, concerning [His] resurrection, concerning [His] walk with His disciples, [19.] and concerning His double advent: the first in humility when He was despised, which has been; the second in royal power, glorious, which is to be. [20.] What marvel, therefore, if John so constantly brings forward particular [matters] also in his Epistles, saying of himself: [21.] "What we have seen with our eyes and have heard with [our] ears and our hands have handled, these things we have written to you." [22.] For thus he declares that he was not only an eyewitness and hearer, but also a writer of all the wonderful things of the Lord in order. [23.] The Acts of all the Apostles, however, were written in one volume. [24.] Luke described briefly "for" most excellent Theophilus particular [things], which happened in his presence, [25.] as he also evidently relates the death of Peter (?) [26.] and also Paul's departure from the city as he was proceeding to Spain. [27.] The Epistles of Paul themselves, however, show to those, who wish to know, which [they are], from what place, and for what cause they were sent. [28.] First of all he wrote to the Corinthians, admonishing against schism of heresy; [29.] thereupon to the Galatians [admonishing against] circumcision; [30.] to the Romans, however, [he wrote] rather lengthily pointing out with a series of Scripture quotations that Christ is their main theme also (?). [31.] But it is necessary that we have a discussion singly concerning these, [32] since the blessed Apostle Paul himself, imitating the example of his predecessor, John, wrote to seven churches only by name [and] in this order: [33.] The first [Epistle] to the Corinthians, the second to the Ephesians, the third to the Philippians, the fourth to the Colossians, the fifth to the Galatians, the sixth to the Thessalonians, and the seventh to the Romans. [34.] But, although he wrote twice to the Corinthians and to the Thessalonians, for reproof (?), [35.] nevertheless [it is evident that] one Church is made known to be diffused throughout the whole globe of the earth. [36.] For John also, though he wrote in the Apocalypse to seven churches, nevertheless he speaks to them all. [37.] But he [wrote] one [letter] to Philemon and one to Titus, but two to Timothy for the sake of affection and love. [38.] In honor of the General Church, however, they have been sanctified by an ordination of the ecclesiastical discipline. [39.] There is extant also [an epistle] to the Laodiceans, and another to the Alexandrians, forged in the name of Paul according to the heresy of Marcion. [40.] There are also many others which cannot be received in the General Church, for gall cannot be mixed with honey. [41.] The Epistle of Jude indeed and the two with the superscription "Of John," are accepted in the General [Church] — [42.] so also the Wisdom of Solomon written by friends in his honor. [43.] We accept only the Apocalypses of John and of Peter, although some of us do not want it to be read in the Church. [44.] But Hermas composed The Shepherd quite recently in our times in the city of Rome, while his brother, Pius, the bishop, occupied the [episcopal] seat of the city of Rome. [45.] And therefore, it should indeed be read, but it cannot be published for the people in the Church, [46.] neither among the Prophets, since their number is complete, [47.] nor among the Apostles for it is after their time (?). [48.] But we accept nothing at all of Arsinoes, or Valentinus, or Metiades (?). [49.] Those also [are rejected] who composed a new book of Psalms for Marcion together with Basilides and the Cataphrygians of Asia (?)...” - (Pages 106-113, “Theron in Evidence of Tradition,”.)

MURATORIAN FRAGMENT OR CANON (circa. 180 C.E.): “...At which however he was present and so he has set it down. The third Gospel book, that according to Luke. This physician Luke after Christ's ascension (resurrection?), since Paul had taken him with him as an expert in the way (of the teaching), composed it in his own name according to (his) thinking. Yet neither did he himself see the Lord in the flesh; and therefore, as he was able to ascertain it, so he begins to tell the story from the birth of John. The fourth of the Gospels, that of John, (one) of the disciples. When his fellow-disciples and bishops urged him, he said: Fast with me from today for three days, and what will be revealed to each one let us relate to one another. In the same night it was revealed to Andrew, one of the apostles, that, whilst all were to go over (it), John in his own name should write everything down. And therefore, though various rudiments (or: tendencies?) are taught in the several Gospel books, yet that matters nothing for the faith of believers, since by the one and guiding (original?) Spirit everything is declared in all: concerning the birth, concerning the passion, concerning the resurrection, concerning the intercourse with his disciples and concerning his two comings, the first despised in lowliness, which has come to pass, the second glorious in kingly power, which is yet to come. What wonder then if John, being thus always true to himself, adduces particular points in his epistles also, where he says of himself: What we have seen with our eyes and have heard with our ears and our hands have handled, that have we written to you. For so he confesses (himself) not merely an eye and ear witness, but also a writer of all the marvels of the Lord in order. But the acts of all apostles are written in one book. For the 'most excellent Theophilus' Luke summarizes the several things that in his own presence have come to pass, as also by the omission of the passion of Peter he makes quite clear, and equally by (the omission) of the journey of Paul, who from the city (of Rome) proceeded to Spain. The epistles, however, of Paul themselves make clear to those who wish to know it which there are (i.e. from Paul), from what place and for what cause they were written. First of all to the Corinthians (to whom) he forbids the heresy of schism, then to the Galatians (to whom he forbids) circumcision, and then to the Romans, (to whom) he explains that Christ is the rule of the scriptures and moreover their principle, he has written at considerable length. We must deal with these severally, since the blessed apostle Paul himself, following the rule of his predecessor John, writes by name only to seven churches in the following order: to the Corinthians the first (epistle), to the Ephesians the second, to the Philippians the third, to the Colossians the fourth, to the Galatians the fifth, to the Thessalonians the sixth, to the Romans the seventh. Although he wrote to the Corinthians and to the Thessalonians once more for their reproof, it is yet clearly recognizable that over the whole earth one church is spread. For John also in the Revelation writes indeed to seven churches, yet speaks to all. But to Philemon one, and to Titus one, and to Timothy two, (written) out of goodwill and love, are yet held sacred to the glory of the catholic Church for the ordering of ecclesiastical discipline. There is current also (an epistle) to the Laodiceans, another to the Alexandrians, forged in Paul's name for the sect of Marcion, and several others, which cannot be received in the catholic Church; for it will not do to mix gall with honey. Further an epistle of Jude and two with the title (or: two of the above mentioned) John are accepted in the catholic Church, and the Wisdom written by friends of Solomon in his honour. Also of the revelations we accept only those of John and Peter, which (latter) some of our people do not want to have read in the Church. But Hermas wrote the Shepherd quite lately in our time in the city of Rome, when on the throne of the church of the city of Rome the bishop Pius, his brother, was seated. And therefore it ought indeed to be read, but it cannot be read publicly in the Church to the other people either among the prophets, whose number is settled, or among the apostles to the end of time. But we accept nothing whatever from Arsinous or Valentinus and Miltiades(?), who have also composed a new psalm book for Marcion, together with Basilides of Asia Minor, the founder of the Cataphrygians...” - (Translated by Glenn Davis.)

MURATORIAN FRAGMENT OR CANON (circa. 180 C.E.): “...At which never the less he was present and so he placed it in his narrative. The third book of the gospel is that according to Luke. Luke the well know physician wrote it in his own name, according to the general belief after the ascension of Christ when Paul had associated him with himself as one zealous for correctness. One who took pains to find out the facts. It is true that he had not seen the Lord in the flesh. Yet having ascertained the facts he was able to being his narrative with the nativity of John. The fourth book of the gospel is that of John's, one of the disciples. In response to the exhortation of his fellow disciples and bishops he said "Fast with me for three days then let us tell each other whatever shall be reveled to each one." The same night it was reveled to Andrew, who was one of the apostles, that it was John who should relate in his own name what they collectively remembered. Or that John was to relate in his own name, they all acting as correctors. And so to the faith of believers there is no discord even although different selections are given from the facts in the individual books of the gospels. Because in all of them under the one guiding spirit all the things relative to his nativity, passion, resurrection, conversation with his disciples, and his twofold advent, the first in humiliation rising form contempt which took place and the second in the glory of kingly power which is yet to come, have been declared. What marvel it is then if John induces so consistently in his epistles these several things saying in person "what we have seen with our eyes and heard with our ears and our hands have handled, those things we have written." For thus he professes to be not only an eye witness but also a hearer and a narrator of all the wonderful things of the Lord in their order. Moreover the acts of all the apostles are written in one book. Luke so comprised them for the most excellent Theophilus because of the individual events that took place in his presence. As he clearly shows by omitting the passion of Peter. As well as the departure of Paul, when Paul went from the city of Rome to Spain. Now, the epistles of Paul, what they are and for what reason they were sent they themselves make clear to him who will understand. First of all he wrote at length to the Corinthians to prohibit the system of heresy, then to the Galatians against circumcision. And to the Romans on the order of scriptures intimating also that Christ is the chief matter in them. Each of which is necessary for us to discuss seeing that the blessed apostle Paul himself, following the example of his predecessor John, writes to no more that seven churches by name, in the following order: Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians, and Romans. But he writes twice for the sake of correction to the Corinthians and to the Thessalonians. That there is one church defused throughout the whole earth is shown. by this seven fold writing and John also in the Apocalypse. Even though he writes the seven churches, he speaks to all. But he wrote out of affection and love one to Philemon, one to Titus, two to Timothy and these are held sacred in the honorable esteem of the church catholic, in the regulation of Ecclesiastical discipline. There are adduced one to the Laodiceans another to the Alexandrians, forged in the name of Paul against the heresy of Marcion. And many others which can not be received into the church catholic for it is not fitting that gall be mixed with honey. Further an epistle of Jude and two bearing the name of John are counted among the catholic epistles. And Wisdom written by the friends of Solomon in his honor. We receive the Apocalypses of John and Peter only. Some of us do not wish the Apocalypse of Peter to be read in church. But Hermas wrote "the Shepherd" in the city of Rome most recently in our times, when his brother bishop Pious was occupying the chair in the church at Rome. And so indeed it ought to be read but that it be made public to the people in the church and placed among the prophets whose number is complete or among the apostles is not possible to the end of time. Of Arsenus, Valentinus, or Miltiadees we receive nothing at all. Those also who wrote the "new book of Psalms," Marcion together with Basilides, and the Asian Cataphrigians...” - (Translated by Kenneth Johnson.)

MURATORIAN FRAGMENT OR CANON (circa. 180 C.E.): “...At which he [? S. Mark] was present and thus set them down. The third book of the Gospel is that according to Luke. Luke, the physician, when, after the Ascension of Christ, Paul had taken him to himself as one studious of right [or, probably, as travelling companion] wrote in his own name what he had been told [or in order], although he had not himself seen the Lord in the flesh. He set down the events as far as he could ascertain them, and began his sory with the birth of John. The fourth gospel is that of John, one of the disciples. […] When his fellow-disciples and bishops exhorted him he said, “Fast with me for three days from to-day, and then let us relate to each other whatever may be revealed to each of us.” On the same night it was revealed to Andrew, one of the Apostles, that John should narrate all things in his own name as they remembered them. […] Moreover the Acts of all the Apostles are included in one book. Luke addressed them to the most excellent Theophilus, because the several events took place when he was present; and he makes this plain by the omission of the passion of Peter and the journey of Paul when he left Rome for Spain. For the Epistles of Paul […] he wrote to not more than seven churches, in this order: the first to the Corinthians, the second to the Ephesians, the third to the Phillipians, the fourth to the Colossians, the fifth to the Galatians, the sixth to the Thessalonians, the seventh to the Romans. […] He wrote besides these one to Philemon, one to Titus, and two to Timothy. These were written in personal affection; but they have been hallowed by being held in honour by the Catholic Church for the regulation of church displine. There are extant also a letter to the Laodiceans and another to the Alexandrians, forged under Paul's name to further the heresy of Marcion. And there are many others which cannot be received into the Catholic Church. For it is not fiting for gall to be mixed with honey. The Epistle of Jude indeed, and two bearing the name of John, are accepted in the Catholic Church; also Wisdom, written by the friends of Solomon in his honour. We receive also the Apocalypse of John and {1}that of Peter, which{1} some of us refuse to have read in the Church. But the Shepeherd was written very recently in our time by Hermas, in the city of Rome, when his brother, Bishop Pius, was sitting in the Chair of the Church of Rome. Therefore it ought also to be read; but it cannot be publicly read in the Church to the people, either among the Prophets, since their number is complete [?], or among the Apostles, to the end of time...” - (Page 30-31, Section III, THE MURATORIAN CANON, Text in Westcott, Canon of N.T., App. C., as quoted in “The Documents of the Christian Church,” By Henry Bettenson, Chris Maunder Fourth Edtion 2011.)
[FOOTNOTE 1]: A probable emendation reads, “and one epsitle only of Peter; a second is extant which,” etc.
[FOOTNOTE 2]: This is a partial translation, sections that are missing are indicated by […]. There is also a section at the end not included.