Monday, March 12, 2012

WHAT DID ORIGEN (mid. 3Rd Century) & JEROME (late 4th Century) READ IN THE BEST - “...MOST ACCURATE...” - COPIES OF THE BIBLE? = τὸ τετραγράμματον ( יהוה ) = JEHOVAH




INCIPIT PROLOGUS SANCTI HIERONYMI IN LIBRO REGUM

LATIN TEXT: “...Et nomen Domini tetragrammaton in quibusdam graecis voluminibus usque hodie antiquis expressum litteris invenimus...” - (Pages 364-66, Biblia Sacra Vulgata edited by Robert Weber: Biblia Sacra Iuxta Vulgatam Versionem; Adiuvantibus Bonifatio Fischer OSB, Iohanne Gribomont OSB, H.F.D. Sparks, W. Thiele; Recensuit et Brevi Apparatu Instruxit Robertus Weber OSB; Editio Tertia Emendata quam Paravit, etc. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1983.)

ST. JEROME'S PROLOGUE TO THE BOOKS OF THE KINGS

JEROME / HIERONYMUS (circa. 347-420 C.E.): “...And the name of the Lord, THE TETRAGRAMMATON, in certain Greek volumes, even{*} to this day, [we] come upon, clearly [and] distinctly{#} expressed in ancient letters...” - (“Prologue to the Books of the Kings,” Translated by Matt13weedhacker 12/03/12.)
[FOOTNOTE *]: Ltn., ( usque ) or “constantly”
[FOOTNOTE *]: Ltn., ( expressum ) = expanded definition

ΕΙΣ ΨΑΛΜΟΎΣ

GREEK TEXT: “...Ἐν τοῖς ἀκριβεστέροις δὲ τῶν ἀντιγράφων Ἑβραίοις χαρακτῆρσι κεῖται τὸ [τετραγράμματον] ὄνομα, Ἑβραϊκοῖς δὲ οὐ τοῖς νῦν, ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἀρχαιοτάτοις...” - (“On Psalms,” [dub.] 12:1104, MPG.)

ON PSALMS

ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA (circa 185-253 C.E.): “...But in the most accurate of the certified copies, [in] Hebrew characters lies outstretched, THE NAME, but not the Hebrew of the present time, but the original ones...” - (12:1104, “On Psalms,” Translated by Matt13weedhacker 12/03/12.)

Alternate renderings:

ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA (circa 185-253 C.E.): “...But in the most accurate of the certified copies, [in] Hebrew characters lies outstretched, THE [TETRAGRAMMATON], but not the Hebrew of the present time, but the original ones...” - (12:1104, “On Psalms,” Translated by Matt13weedhacker 12/03/12.)

ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA (circa 185-253 C.E.): “...But in the most exact of the official copies, lies before [you in] Hebrew characters, THE NAME, but not the Hebrew [letters] of today, but the most ancient ones...” - (12:1104, “On Psalms,” Translated by Matt13weedhacker 12/03/12.)


In the photographic examples below you can see modern confirmation of what Origen and Jerome described:


THE TETRAGRAMMATON IN ARCHAIC HEBREW CHARACTERS




Above is an image of thee Oldest Extant Greek LXX MSS or manuscript (8HevXIIgr also known as Göttingen 943) of Micah 5:1-5.


Above Habakkuk 1-2 LXX with the Tetragrammaton in Archaic Hebrew Characters.

Notice the same style of Archaic Hebrew lettering used for the Tetragrammaton in the two examples above with the "...Silver Scroll..." (circa. 600 B.C.) also known as the “...Priestly Benediction...” taken from Numbers 6:24–26. Which coincidentally also has the Tetragrammaton. This is the type of Hebrew was used, at least, 300 Years ( before ) the Septuagint was first written, giving an indication, perhaps, of the age of the MSS these were copied from:


Also compare:


Above Zechariah 8, LXX with the Tetragrammaton in Archaic Hebrew Characters.




Above Job 42:11-12 LXX with the Tetragrammaton in Archaic Hebrew Characters.

And there they are, right in among the Greek text, - just as - both - Origen and Jerome said. 

These were the most Gk., ( ἀκριβεστέροις ) "...precise, exact, accurate..." of the Gk., ( ἀντιγράφων ) "...copies..." or "...certified cop[ies] of an official document..." (according to the Lexicon definition) in other words thee most important Septuagint MSS'.
 
And here is an example of a Hebrew MSS with the (then) newer square characters, as Origen said Gk., ( τοῖς νῦν ) "...the ones of the present...", as Jerome confirmed later, with the Tetragrammaton in the Ltn., ( antiquis [...] litteris ) "...ancient [...] lettering..." within the (then) more modern Hebrew style of writing:



COMPARE: 

The (circa. 3rd Century C.E.) Hebrew Tosefta, ( Shabbat 13:5 ), quoting Rabbi Tarfon or Tarphon, Heb., ( רבי טרפון), from the Gk., ( Τρύφων ), a Kohen, a member of the third generation of the Mishnah sages, who lived in the period between the destruction of the Second Temple ( 70 C.E. ) and the fall of Bethar ( 135 C.E. ):

SHABBAT 13:5: “...We don't save the [ Gilyohnim ] Gospels or the books of Minim from the fire. They are burnt where they are, together with their tetragrammatons. Rabbi Yose Ha-Gelili says: "During the week one should take the tetragrammatons from them, hide them and burn the rest". Rabbi Tarfon said: 'May I bury my children! If I would have them in my hands, I would burn them with all their tetragrammatons...” - (“Who was a Jew?” By Lawrence. H. Schiffman, as quoted on Page 30-31, The Watchtower, November 1, 1993..)
 
SHABBAT 13:5: “...We do not save from a fire (on the Sabbath) the [ Gilyohnim ] Gospels and the books of the minim ("heretics"). Rather, they are burned in their place, they and their Tetragrammata. Rabbi Yose Ha-Gelili says: During the week, one should cut out their Tetragrammata and hide them away and burn the remainder. Said Rabbi Tarfon: May I bury my sons! If (these books) would come into my hand, I would burn them along with their Tetragrammata...” - (Alternate Translation “Who was a Jew?” By Lawrence. H. Schiffman, as quoted on Page 30-31, The Watchtower, November 1, 1993.)
 
SHABBAT 13:5: “...The Gilyon[im] (i.e., gospel books) and the books of the minim (i.e., Jewish heretics) are not saved [on the Sabbath] from fire; but one lets them burn together with the names of God [ Tetragrammaton ] written upon them...” - (Page 99, Jacob Neusner Judaism and Christianity in the Age of Constantine 2008.)
 
SHABBAT 13:5: “...The books of the [ Gilyohnim ] Evangelists and the books of the Minim they do not save from a fire [on the Sabbath]. They are allowed to burn up where they are, they and [even] the references to the Divine Name [ Tetragrammaton ] that are in them...” - (Page 14, Neusner Persia and Rome in classical Judaism 2008.)

SHABBAT 13:5: “...The [ Gilyohnim ] blank spaces and the Books of the Minim, we may not save them from a fire. R. Jose said: On weekdays one must cut out the [ Tetragrammaton ] Divine Names which they contain, hide them, and burn the rest. R. Tarfon said: May I bury my son if I would not burn them together with their [ Tetragrammaton ] Divine Names if they came to my hand...” - (Translated By Dr. H. Freedman as quoted on Page 30-31, The Watchtower, November 1, 1993.)

SHABBAT 13:5: “...The 'Gilyon[im]' and the [Biblical] books of the Judæo-Christians [ Minim ] are not saved [on the Sabbath] from fire; but one lets them burn together with the [ Tetragrammaton ] names of God written upon them." R. Jose the Galilean says: "On week-days the [ Tetragrammaton ] names of God are cut out and hidden while the rest is burned." R. Tarphon says: "I swear by the life of my children that if they fall into my hands I shall burn them together with the [ Tetragrammaton ] names of God upon them." R. Ishmael says: "If God has said, 'My name that has been written in holiness [i.e., in the "jealousy roll" mentioned in Num. v. 21 et seq.] shall be wiped out by water, in order to make peace between husband and wife,' then all the more should the books of the Judæo-Christians, that cause enmity, jealousy, and contention between Israel and its heavenly Father. [...] As they are not saved from fire, so they are not saved when they are in danger of decaying, or when they have fallen into water, or when any other mishap has befallen them...” - (Page 29, Zuckermandel, Edition, “GILYONIM = “Gospels,” lit., “scrolls,” JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ONLINE.)
[FOOTNOTE]: Tosef., Shab. xiii. 5 []; comp. Shab. 116a; Yer. Shab. 15c, 52; Sifre, Num. 16.
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/6677-gilyonim