Tuesday, October 19, 2010

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS OLD LATIN VERSION SAYS JESUS WAS CREATED

POST EDITED with a revised translation of Theophilus 3/06/11

William Whiston in his "Primative Christianity Revived" Vol 4, noted that the Old Latin Version of Hermas had this reading below:

LATIN TEXT: "...Cui nunicus, Audi: Flum siritum sanctum, qui creatus est omnium primus in corpore, in quo babitaret, Deus collocavi, in clesto scilicet corpore, quod ei vidibatur..." - (Sim., V.5.5. According to William Whiston)

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "...To who the Messanger reply'd, Hearken, That Holy Spirit which was FIRST OF ALL CREATED did God place in a body wherein it should inhabit ; that is in a chosen body, which pleased him..." - (Sim., V.5.5 Page 105 page 116 William Whistons Primitive Christianity Revived)

Jesus is being referred to here as "...that holy spirit...".

Is this doctrinal confusion? I don't know. Perhaps.

Or perhaps it just refers to Jesus as a pre-existing "spirit" in heaven before becoming man, and perhaps also to his "holiness" as God's Son.

The above translation appears to be confirmed in the following:

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "...That Holy Spirit which was CREATED FIRST OF ALL, God placed in a body, in which it should dwell, in a chosen body, as it pleased him." - (Sim., V.5.5 Martini's translation. As quoted in A. D. Howell-Smith "Jesus Not a Myth," pp. 120-121.)

Compare also Theophilus of Antioch:


THEOPHILUS OF ANTIOCH (circa. 115-181 C.E.): "...And First, they taught us this agreed upon and harmonious teaching, that all things existing were made out of nothing. FOR THERE IS NOTHING [Gk., ( συνκμασεν )] COEVAL TO THEE (DEFINITIVE) GOD. But, [when He] willed to make "Mankind" to whom He might become known He was Himself ( of ) Himself, a place, AND IN NEED OF NOTHING AT ALL, and “existing before the ages”. It was to this end therefore, that He prepared the world for His purpose. For he who is [Gk., ( γενητς )] begotten is also in need, BUT IN CONTRAST HE WHO IS [Gk., ( γνητος )] UN-BEGOTTEN, IS IN NEED OF NOTHING AT ALL. This (definitive) God, having internal his Word with-in his own bowels, [Gk., ( γννησεν )] produced the Word with his own wisdom [Gk., ( ξερευξμενος )] “emmittting” him before the entire uninverse. THIS ONE,THE WORD, HE [Gk., ( γεγενημνων )] PRODUCED AS [Gk., ( ὑπουργὸν )] A SUBORDINATE-SERVANT [Gk., ( ὑπ' )] INFERIOR TO HIM, [Gk., ( δι' )] THROUGH WHOSE INTERMEDIATE AGENCY HE ALSO MADE ALL THINGS. This (one) is called [ἀρχή] “a beginning,” because it was [ἄρχει] “to make a beginning” and [κυριεύει] “to be Master of” everything he worked at to fabricate through his intermediate agency. This (one), therefore, being "spirit of God" and "a beginning" and "wisdom" and "power of the Most High", came down into the prophets and [Gk., ( δι' )] through their intermediate agency was speaking concerning the making of the world and of everything else remaining. For the prophets were not yet in existence when the world came to be, but the wisdom of the (definitive) God was in him being, and this the ( holy ) Word of him, is the one always standing by him. On this account, therefore it was He that spoke also [Gk., ( διὰ )] through the intermediate agency of the prophet Solomon, saying: “...When He was preparing the heavens, I was present with Him, and when He was making strong the foundations of the Earth, there I was beside Him harmoniously arranging things, setting them in order...” Moses before Solomon and many of his kinsman even came into existance, or rather I should say the Logos of the (definitive) God, spoke as through an insturment, saying through him: “...In [the] beginning, the God made the heavens and the earth...” - (THEOPHILUS OF ANTIOCH, TO AUTOLYCUS, Book II, Chapter 10, revised 19/1/11 RE-REVISED 3/6/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( συνκμασεν ) “...for nothing was coeval with God...” (CCEL) See Lamps Patristic Lexicon Page 1326 onwards.
ENGLISH DEFINITION OF: ( COEVAL ): of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration
MERRIAM-WEBSTER DICTIONARY.
[FOOTNOTE CCEL 567]: Literally, belching or vomiting. [The reference is to Ps. xlv. where the LXX. read ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθὸν, and the Latin eructavit cor meum bonum Verbum; i.e., “My heart hath breathed forth a glorious Word.” The well-chosen language of the translator (emitted) is degraded by his note.]
[FOOTNOTE CCEL 568]: Prov. viii. 27. Theophilus reads with the Septuagint, “I was with Him, putting things into order,” instead of “I was by Him as one brought up with Him.” [Here the Logos is the σοφία as with the Fathers generally; e.g. Cyprian, Advs. Judæos, book ii. 2. But see cap. xv. p. 101, infra.]
[FOOTNOTE 1]: ὑπουργὸν
Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by. Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940.
ὑπουργ-ός , όν, contr. for ὑποεργός (q. v.),
A. "... a servant of any one,..."
[FOOTNOTE 3]: We get our English word "organ" from the following Greek word.
Liddell and Scott. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1889.
ὄργανον 1 *ἔργω
I. an organ, instrument, tool, for making or doing a thing, Soph., Eur., etc.:—of a person, ἁπάντων ἀεὶ κακῶν ὄργ. Soph.
[FOOTNOTE 4]: (ὑπ') "Inferior" or "under" or "beneath" or "below" or "subject" or "subordinate"
[FOOTNOTE 5]: To the God of Theophilus, who made everything: (δι') "through" [Compare John 1:3,10; Heb 1:2; Col 1:16; 1st Cor 8:6; etc.]

Compare also the language of Lactantius of the 3rd and 4th Centuries:

LACTANTIUS (240 - 325 C.E.?): "God, therefore, the Contriver and Founder of all things ... before he commenced this excellent work of the world, BEGAT A PURE AND INCORRUPTIBLE SPIRIT whom he called his Son. And although he had afterwards created by himself innumerable other beings, whom we call Angels, this first-begotten, however, was the only one whom he considered worthy of being called by the divine name, as being powerful in his Father's excellence and majesty ... Assuredly, he is the very Son of God, who by that most wise King Solomon, full of divine inspiration, spake these things which we have added: [520] 'GOD FOUNDED [CREATED] ME in the beginning of his ways, in his work before the ages. He set me up in the beginning before he made the earth'..." - (THE DIVINE INSTITUTES, BOOK 4 Chapter 6).

[FOOTNOTE 520]: Prov. viii. 22–31. Lactantius quotes from the Septuagint.

PERSONAL SIDE NOTE: Lactantius also quotes to non scriptural sources here in this passage to similar effect but I have left those out.



According to William Whiston the printers changed the text in their printed editions to the following:

PRINTED EDITIONS: "...Cui nunicus, Audi: Flum siritum sanctum, qui [insusui] est omnium primus in corpore, in quo babitaret, Deus collocavi, in clesto scilicet corpore, quod ei vidibatur..." (According to William Whistons text.)

Whether this is true or not I cannot say for sure. It appears to be a textual variant.

The Greek version says very differently.

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "...And why the Lord took His Son as councillor, and the glorious angels, regarding the heirship of the slave, listen. [τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον τὸ προόν, τὸ κτίσαν πᾶσαν τὴν κτίσιν] The holy, pre-existent Spirit, that created every creature, God made to dwell in flesh, which He chose..." - (Fifth Similitude Chap. VI.5 ANF Edited by Roberts & Donaldson)

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/shepherd.html

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): 6[59]:5 "The Holy Pre-existent Spirit. Which created the whole creation, God made to dwell in flesh that He desired. This flesh, therefore, in which the Holy Spirit dwelt, was subject unto the Spirit, walking honorably in holiness and purity, without in any way defiling the Spirit..." (Sim., V.5.5., By J. B. Lightfoot)

Could it be that this last version was changed or edited by later Trinitarians?

Why do I say that?

Because a footnote shows multiple renderings. Which I will break up into parts for easier understanding:

[FOOTNOTE 280(A1)]: "This passage varies in each of the forms in which it has come down, and is corrupt in most, if not in all."

It goes on to give three different versions from different MSS:

[FOOTNOTE 280(A2)]: "The Vatican (Lat.) has, "Because the messenger hears the Holy Spirit, which was the first of all that was poured (infusus) into a body in which God might dwell. For understanding (intellectus) placed it in a body as seemed proper to Him."

[FOOTNOTE 280(B)]: "The Pal. reads: "For that Holy Spirit which was created pure [first] of all in a body in which it might dwell, God made and appointed a chosen body which pleased Him."

[FOOTNOTE 280(C)]: "The Ath. reads: "The Holy Spirit, who created all things, dwelt in a body in which He wished to dwell." [See Grabe's collation and emendation here, in Wake's translation]."

1.) The Vatican or Vulgate version - (Latin) 10th Century
2.) The Palatine version - (Latin) 15th Century
3.) The Mount Athos version - (Greek) 15th Century

Another more important reason is because it clearly contradicts what is said just a couple of sentences before:

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "..."Hear," he answered: "the Son of God is not in the form of a slave, but in great power and might." "How so, sir?" I said; "I do not understand." "Because," he answered, "GOD planted the vineyard, that is to say, HE CREATED THE PEOPLE, AND GAVE THEM TO HIS SON; and the Son appointed His angels over them to keep them; and He Himself purged away their sins, having suffered many trials and undergone many labours, for no one is able to dig without labour and toil. He Himself, then, having purged away the sins of the people, showed them the paths of life by giving them the law which He received from His Father. You see," he said, "that He is the Lord of the people, having received all authority from His Father..." - (Fifth Similitude Chap. VI.2)

"GOD" is here shown to be the "CREAT[OR]" and it is "HE" who "GAVE" the creation to "HIS" Son.

Also going back to (Sim., V.5.5) notice both Lightfoot and R&D follow with:

Shepard of Hermas
Parable 5
Ἄλλη παραβολή (V):5:(A). τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον τὸ προόν, τὸ κτίσαν πᾶσαν τὴν κτίσιν, κατῴκησε τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅτιον, ἐδούλευσε τῷ πνεύματι καλῶς ἐν σεμνότητι καὶ ἁγνείᾳ πορευθεῖσα, μηδὲν ὅλως μιάνασα τὸ πνεῦμα.

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "...GOD made to dwell in flesh..." - (Fifth Similitude Chap. VI.5, ANF Edited by Roberts & Donaldson)

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): 6[59]:5 "...GOD made to dwell in flesh..." (Sim., V.5.5., By J. B. Lightfoot)

It was "GOD" who made him dwell in flesh.

Which is really confusing, seeing that (θεός) "god" or (ὁ θεός) "the God" does not appear anywhere in the sentence.

Then in the English version it gets even more confusing:

Shepard of Hermas
Parable 5
Ἄλλη παραβολή (V):5:(B). "...κατῴκησε τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅτιον, ἐδούλευσε τῷ πνεύματι καλῶς ἐν σεμνότητι καὶ ἁγνείᾳ πορευθεῖσα, μηδὲν ὅλως μιάνασα τὸ πνεῦμα.

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "...which HE chose..." - (Fifth Similitude Chap. VI.5, ANF Edited by Roberts & Donaldson)

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): 6[59]:5 "...that HE desired..." (Sim., V.5.5., By J. B. Lightfoot)

Which "HE" is it refering to?

"God" or "Jesus"?

Thats where the forgery works for the Trinitarians, its exactly what they want, they want to blur the line between "GOD" and "Jesus" the Son ( of ) God.

Notice how this deliberate blurring is done in the Latin Vatican version:

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "...Because the messenger hears the Holy Spirit, which was the first of all that was poured (infusus) into a body in which God might dwell. For understanding placed it in a body as seemed proper to Him..." (Vatican Latin version)

The Palatine Latin say's:

SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (circa 140-160): "...in a body in which it might dwell, God made and appointed a chosen body which pleased Him..." (Palatine Latin version circa 15th Century)

Another passage may help to clear this up in Hermas.

Which has, in my opinion, been deliberately obscured in Trinitarian translations.

ANF TRINITARIN CLAIM: Here Trinitarians say that Jesus is the eternal co-equal Son and un-beggoten and un-created. (See post on Ignatius of Antioch)

They quote as proof the following translation:

GREEK TEXT: ὁ μὲν υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ πάσης τῆς κτίσεως αὐτοῦ προγενέστερός ἐστιν, ὥστε σύμβουλον αὐτὸν γενέσθαι τῷ πατρὶ τῆς κτίσεως αὐτοῦ· διὰ τοῦτο καὶ παλαιὰ ἡ πέτρα. (Book 3 Chap 12:2)

THE PASTOR OF HERMAS (circa 140-160 C.E.): “The Son of God is older than all His creation, so that He became the Father’s adviser in His creation. Therefore also He is ancient.” - (Similtude 9, chapter 12; J. B. Lightfoot, page 229)

Or they quote the standard Roberts & Donaldsons ANF series translation:

THE PASTOR OF HERMAS (circa 140-160 C.E.): “First of all, sir,” I said, “explain this to me: What is the meaning of the rock and the gate?” “This rock,” he answered, “and this gate are the Son of God.” “How, sir?” I said; “the rock is old, and the gate is new.” “Listen,” he said, “and understand, O ignorant man. The Son of God is older than all His creatures, so that He was a fellow-councilor with the Father in His work of creation: for this reason is He old.” - (Book: 3; Similitude: 9th; Chapter: 12; - Translated by the Rev. F. Crombie, M.A. ANF Roberts & Donalson)

I never thought any different until I read the Greek text one day.

I want to share with you what I discovered.

Lets examine the Greek text in question and take a closer look.

GREEK TEXT: ὁ μὲν υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ πάσης τῆς κτίσεως αὐτοῦ προγενέστερός ἐστιν, ὥστε σύμβουλον αὐτὸν γενέσθαι τῷ πατρὶ τῆς κτίσεως αὐτοῦ· διὰ τοῦτο καὶ παλαιὰ ἡ πέτρα. (Book 3 Chap 12:2)

Theres one word in this text which changes the whole meaning of the text.

Gk., ( προγενέστερός ) transliteration = pro-gene-steros

Both Joeseph Barber Lightfoot and the Reverend F. Crombie no doubt learned men, knew the significance and meaning of this Greek word but chose to translate it differently.

What does Gk., (pro-gene-steros) it actually mean?

( προγενέστερός ) born before, primaeval Soph. -Comp προγενέστερός, α, ον, earlier in birth i.e. older, Hom.; οἱ πρ. our predecessors, Arist.:--Sup. προγενέστερός, eldest-born h. Hom. - (Lindell & Scott: GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON)

( προγενέστερός ) born before, older in years - (G.W.H. Lampe Patristic Lexicon)

( προγενέστερός ) born before, old, ancient, aged - (Langenscheidt Classical Greek Dictionary)

( προγενέστερός ) before-born, old, ancient, aged - (Alexander Souter: A Pocket Lexicon to the New Testament)

This word ( προγενέστερός ) is doctrinally significant.

Its a compound Greek word literally meaning:

"before" ( προ ) + "to be born/to be generated" ( γενέστερός ).

From the definitions of the above dictionaries this word changes the meaning of the text quite significantly.

"Born-before"
"Eldest-born"
"Oldest-born"
"Earlier-in-birth"
"Older-in-birth"

And "born-before" is always the FIRST meaning cited in the dictionaries.

This is not speaking about a UN-begotten eternal second being of the triad.

It could be translated as "Generated-before."

I have also seen this word translated as "CREATED-before" in other works.

Note the word Gk., ( γενέσθαι ) later in the verse.

Its the same word used in the compound that speaks of Jesus.

It means Gk., ( γενέσθαι ) "to be born" "generating," "came/comming to be" later in the verse.

So it really means and should be translated:

GREEK TEXT: ὁ μὲν υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ πάσης τῆς κτίσεως αὐτοῦ προγενέστερός ἐστιν, ὥστε σύμβουλον αὐτὸν γενέσθαι τῷ πατρὶ τῆς κτίσεως αὐτοῦ· διὰ τοῦτο καὶ παλαιὰ ἡ πέτρα. (Book 3 Chap 12:2)

Literal translation with basic word meanings according to word order: "The (but) Son (of) the God (of) all the creation (of) him [προγενέστερός] before-born/generated is, therefore took-counsel-with (to) him comming to be (to) the Father of the creation (of) him. Through this also ancient the Rock."

Translation according to sense: "The Son of God is [προγενέστερός] earlier in birth [than] all (of) his created things, therefore he consulted together with the Father in bringing into existence his creation. For this reason [he is] the ancient rock."

Translation: "The Son of God is [προγενέστερός] born-before all (of) his created things, therefore he consulted together with the Father in bringing into existence his creation. For this reason [he is] the ancient rock."

Translation: "The Son of God is [προγενέστερός] oldest-born before all of his created things, therefore he consulted with the Father in bringing into existence his creation. For this reason [he is] the ancient rock."

Translation: "The Son of God is [προγενέστερός] generated before all the created things (of) his, therefore he sought counsel with the Father in bringing into existence his creation. For this reason [he is] the ancient rock."

Translation: "The Son of God is [προγενέστερός] earlier in existence than all (of) his created things, therefore he sought counsel with the Father in bringing into existence his creation. For this reason [he is] the ancient rock."

Translation: "The Son of God is [προγενέστερός] CREATED BEFORE all (of) his created things, therefore he sought counsel with the Father in bringing into existence his creation. For this reason [he is] the ancient rock."

Translated by Matt13weedhacker Updated (20/6/09) and Revised (1/10/09)

This translation and interpretation harmonizes the texts. Pro-genesteros Gk., (προγενέστερός) helps us to understand the earlier statement.

If Jesus is truly the "first (one) to be born of all creation" as Colossians 1:15 say's then Hermas saying he was "created first of all" then "consulted together with the Father" in his part "in the beginning" (Prov 8:22; Gen 1:1; John 1:1-3;) and all (OTHER) things were "created ( IN ) him" and "( THROUGH ) him" (Col 1:16-18; John 1:3,10; 1st Cor 8:6; Heb 1:3) not "by" him as is miss-translated by trinitarians, then Hermas makes complete sense.

It harmonises with Prov 8:22-31 LXX where Jesus as "Wisdom" is the "Master Worker" alongside his Creator, God and Father bringing "order" and "arangement" to the creation with his Father.

The Father being the ULTIMATE-SOURCE of all creation (1st Cor 8:4-6).

It also harmonises with many other Ante-Nicene statements of the earliest Post-Biblical Christian writers.

Shepard of Hermas
Visions
ΠΟΙΜΗΝ
Ὅρασις α’
III:4. Ἰδού, ὁ θεὸς τῶν δυνάμεων, ὃ ἀγαπῶ, δυνάμει κραταιᾷ καὶ τῇ μεγάλῃ συνέσει αὐτοῦ κτίσας τὸν κόσνον καὶ τῇ ἐνδόξῳ βουλῇ περιθεὶς τὴν εὐπρέπειαν τῇ κτίσει αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ ἰσχυρῷ ῥήματι πήξας τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ θεμελώσας τὴν γῆν ἐπὶ ὑδάτων καὶ τῇ ἰδίᾳ σοφίᾳ καὶ προνοίᾳ κτίσας τὴν ἁγίαν ἐκκλησίαν αὐτοῦ, ἣν καὶ ηὐλόγησεν, ἰδού, μεθιστάνει τοὺς οὐρανούς, καὶ τὰ ὄρη καὶ τοὺς βουνοὺς καὶ τὰς θαλ´σσας, καὶ πάντα ὁμαλὰ γίνεται τοῖς ἐκλεκτοῖς αὐτοῦ, ἵνα ἀποδῷ αὐτοῖς τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν, ἣν ἐπηγγείλατο μετὰ πολλῆς δόξης καὶ χαρᾶς, ἐὰν τηρήσωσιν τὰ νόμιμα τοῦ θεοῦ, ἃ παρέλαβον ἐν μεγάλῃ πίστει.

"...The God of powers, who by His invisible mighty power and great wisdom has created the world, and by His glorious counsel has beautified His creation, and by His powerful Word has fixed the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth upon the waters..." (Visions, 1, 3)

The Shepherd of Hermas
First Book: Visions
First Vision
CHAPTER III.
THE PASTOR OF HERMAS (circa 140-160 C.E.): "..."Lo, the God of powers, who by His invisible strong power and great wisdom has created the world, and by His glorious counsel has surrounded His creation with beauty, and by His strong word has fixed the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth upon the waters, and by His own wisdom and providence has created His holy Church, which He has blessed, lo! He removes the heavens and the mountains, the hills and the seas, and all things become plain to His elect, that He may bestow on them the blessing which He has promised them, with much glory and joy, if only they shall keep the commandments of God which they have received in great faith." (R&DT)

The Shepherd of Hermas
First Book: Visions
First Vision
CHAPTER III.
THE PASTOR OF HERMAS (circa 140-160 C.E.): "..."Lo, the God of powers, who by His invisible strong power and great wisdom has created the world, and by His glorious counsel has surrounded His creation with beauty, and by His strong word has fixed the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth upon the waters, and by His own wisdom and providence has created His holy Church, which He has blessed, lo! He removes the heavens and the mountains, the hills and the seas, and all things become plain to His elect, that He may bestow on them the blessing which He has promised them, with much glory and joy, if only they shall keep the commandments of God which they have received in great faith." (LFT)

Post-not -finished will be changed and edited later.