Thursday, June 2, 2011

A TRANSLATION OF THEOPHILUS OF ANTIOCH BOOK II CHAPTER 10

Here is a revised translation of Theophilus I posted in an early blog.


GREEK TEXT: “...Καὶ [10.] πρῶτον μὲν συμφώνως ἐδίδαξαν ἡμᾶς, ὅτι ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων τὰ πάντα ἐποίησεν. οὐ γάρ τι τῷ θεῷ συνήκμασεν· ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ἑαυτοῦ τόπος ὢν καὶ ἀνενδεὴς ὢν καὶ <ὑπάρχων πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων> ἠθέλησεν ἄνθρωπον ποιῆσαι ᾧ γνωσθῇ· τούτῳ οὖν προητοίμασεν τὸν κόσμον. ὁ γὰρ γενητὸς καὶ προσδεής ἐστιν, δὲ ἀγένητος οὐδένος προσδεῖται. Ἔχων οὖν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ λόγον ἐνδιάθετον ἐν τοῖς ἰδίοις σπλάγχνοις ἐγέννησεν αὐτὸν μετὰ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ σοφίας <ἐξερευξάμενος> πρὸ τῶν ὅλων. τοῦτον τὸν λόγον ἔσχεν ὑπουργὸν τῶν ὑπ' αὐτοῦ γεγενημένων, καὶ δι' αὐτοῦ τὰ πάντα πεποίηκεν. οὗτος λέγεται ἀρχή, ὅτι ἄρχει καὶ κυριεύει πάντων τῶν δι' αὐτοῦ δεδημιουργημένων. οὗτος οὖν, ὢν <πνεῦμα θεοῦ> καὶ <ἀρχὴ> καὶ <σοφία> καὶ <δύναμις ὑψίστου>, κατήρχετο εἰς τοὺς προφήτας καὶ δι' αὐτῶν ἐλάλει τὰ περὶ τῆς ποιήσεως τοῦ κόσμου καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν ἁπάντων. οὐ γὰρ ἦσαν οἱ προφῆται ὅτε ὁ κόσμος ἐγίνετο, ἀλλ' ἡ σοφία ἡ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡ ἐν αὐτῷ οὖσα καὶ ὁ λόγος ὁ ἅγιος αὐτοῦ ὁ ἀεὶ συμπαρὼν αὐτῷ. διὸ δὴ καὶ διὰ Σολομῶνος προφήτου οὕτως λέγει· “Ἡνίκα δ' ἡτοίμασεν τὸν οὐρανόν, συμπαρήμην αὐτῷ, καὶ ὡς ἰσχυρὰ ἐποίει τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς, ἤμην παρ' αὐτῷ ἁρμόζουσα.” Μωσῆς δὲ ὁ καὶ Σολομῶνος πρὸ πολλῶν ἐτῶν γενόμενος, μᾶλλον δὲ ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς δι' ὀργάνου δι' αὐτοῦ φησιν· “Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν.”...” - (TO AUTOLYCUS, II:10.)

THEOPHILUS OF ANTIOCH (circa. 115-181 C.E.): "...And First, they taught us this agreed upon and harmonious teaching, that all things existing were made out of nothing. FOR THERE IS NOTHING [Gk., ( συνκμασεν )] COEVAL TO THEE (DEFINITIVE) GOD. But, [when He] willed to make "Mankind" to whom He might become known He was Himself ( of ) Himself, a place, AND IN NEED OF NOTHING AT ALL, and “existing before the ages”. It was to this end therefore, that He prepared the world for His purpose. For he who is [Gk., ( γενητς )] begotten is also in need, BUT IN CONTRAST HE WHO IS [Gk., ( γνητος )] UN-BEGOTTEN, IS IN NEED OF NOTHING AT ALL. This (definitive) God, having internal his Word with-in his own bowels, [Gk., ( γννησεν )] produced the Word with his own wisdom [Gk., ( ξερευξμενος )] “emmittting” him before the entire uninverse. THIS ONE,THE WORD, HE [Gk., ( γεγενημνων )] PRODUCED AS [Gk., ( ὑπουργὸν )] A SUBORDINATE-SERVANT [Gk., ( ὑπ' )] INFERIOR TO HIM, [Gk., ( δι' )] THROUGH WHOSE INTERMEDIATE AGENCY HE ALSO MADE ALL THINGS. This (one) is called [ἀρχή] “a beginning,” because it was [ἄρχει] “to make a beginning” and [κυριεύει] “to be Master of” everything he worked at to fabricate through his intermediate agency. This (one), therefore, being "spirit of God" and "a beginning" and "wisdom" and "power of the Most High", came down into the prophets and [Gk., ( δι' )] through their intermediate agency was speaking concerning the making of the world and of everything else remaining. For the prophets were not yet in existence when the world came to be, but the wisdom of the (definitive) God was in him being, and this the ( holy ) Word of him, is the one always standing by him. On this account, therefore it was He that spoke also [Gk., ( διὰ )] through the intermediate agency of the prophet Solomon, [Prov 8:22-31 LXX] saying: “...When He was preparing the heavens, I was present with Him, and when He was making strong the foundations of the Earth, there I was beside Him harmoniously arranging things, setting them in order...” Moses before Solomon and many of his kinsman even came into existance, or rather I should say the Logos of the (definitive) God, spoke as through an insturment, saying through him: “...In [the] beginning, the (definitive) God made the heavens and the earth...” - (THEOPHILUS OF ANTIOCH, TO AUTOLYCUS, Book II, Chapter 10, revised 19/1/11 RE-REVISED 5/7/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( συνκμασεν ) “...for nothing was coeval with God...” (CCEL) See Lamps Patristic Lexicon Page 1326 onwards.
ENGLISH DEFINITION OF: ( COEVAL ): of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration
MERRIAM-WEBSTER DICTIONARY.
[FOOTNOTE CCEL 567]: Literally, belching or vomiting. [The reference is to Ps. xlv. where the LXX. read ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθὸν, and the Latin eructavit cor meum bonum Verbum; i.e., “My heart hath breathed forth a glorious Word.” The well-chosen language of the translator (emitted) is degraded by his note.]
[FOOTNOTE CCEL 568]: Prov. viii. 27. Theophilus reads with the Septuagint, “I was with Him, putting things into order,” instead of “I was by Him as one brought up with Him.” [Here the Logos is the σοφία as with the Fathers generally; e.g. Cyprian, Advs. Judæos, book ii. 2. But see cap. xv. p. 101, infra.] 

COMPARE:


GREEK TEXT: “...ἀλλ’, ἐπειδὴ ἐννοηθέντα τὸν θεὸν ( διὰ ) λόγου τὸν κόσμον ποιῆσαι ἔγνωσαν...” - (Justin Martyr 1st Apol. Chapter 64:5; GREEK TEXT By E. J. Goodspeed.)

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): “...But, since they knew the ( definitive ) God concieved in His mind to make the world [Gk., ( διὰ )] through the intermediate agency of [the] Logos...” - (ALTERNATE: Justin Martyr 1st Apol. Chapter 64:5; Matt13weedhacker 3/6/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: See Lamp's Patristic Lexicon Page 476 for Gk., ( ἐννοηθέντα ) under ( ἐννοια ).

I like the Christians Classics version below. It gives the thought clearly:

JUSTIN MARTYR (circa. 110-160 C.E.): "...since they knew that God designed the creation of the world [Gk., ( διὰ ) “through”] by the Word..." - (1st Apology Chap 64: THE LIBRARY OF CHRISTIAN CLASSICS, Early Christian Fathers. Editor: Cyril C. Richardson, Washburn Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.)

Except for the "...by..." instead of the more accurate "...through..." I think the Christian Classics version here gives the best translation of this passage in Justin.

LATIN TEXT: “...Agnoscat [2.] ergo Hermogenes idcirco etiam sophiam dei natam et conditam praedicari, ne quid innatum et inconditum praeter solum deum crederemus. Si enim intra dominum quod ex ipso et in ipso fuit sine initio non fuit, sophia scilicet ipsius, exinde nata et condita ex quo in sensu dei ad opera mundi disponenda coepit agitari, multo magis non capit sine initio quicquam fuisse quod extra dominum fuerit. [3.] Si uero sophia eadem dei sermo est [sensu sophia et], sine quo factum est nihil, sicut et dispositum sine sophia, quale est ut filio dei, sermone unigenito et primogenito, aliquid fuerit praeter patrem antiquius et hoc modo utique generosius, nedum quod innatum fortius et quod infectum facto ualidius, quia quod, ut esset, nullius eguit auctoris, multo sublimius erit eo quod, ut esset, aliquem habuit auctorem? Proinde si malum quidem innatum est, natus autem sermo dei -- eructauit enim inquit sermonem optimum -- non scio an a bono malum possit adduci, ualidius ab infirmo, ut innatum a nato. 4. Ita et hoc nomine materiam deo praeponit Hermogenes, praeponendo eam filio ---- filius enim sermo et deus sermo et Ego et pater unum sumus ----, nisi quod sustinebit aequo animo filius eam praeponi sibi quae patri adaequatur...” - (Tertulliani Liber Adversus Hermogenem Text edited by J.H.WASZINK, 1956.)

TERTULLIAN (circa. 145 to 225.C.E. ): "...Let Hermogenes then confess that the very Wisdom of God is declared to be born and created, for the especial reason that we should not suppose that there is any other being than GOD ALONE WHO IS UNBEGOTTEN AND UN-CREATED. For if that, which from its being inherent in the Lord was of Him and in Him, was yet not without a beginning, — I MEAN HIS WISDOM, WHICH WAS THEN BORN AND CREATED, WHEN IN THE THOUGHT OF GOD IT BEGAN TO ASSUME MOTION FOR THE ARRANGEMENT OF HIS CREATIVE WORKS, — how much more impossible is it that anything should have been without a beginning which was extrinsic to the Lord! But if this same Wisdom is the Word of God, in the capacity of Wisdom, and (as being He) without whom nothing was made, just as also (nothing) was set in order without Wisdom, how can it be that anything, except THE FATHER, should BE OLDER, and on this account indeed NOBLER THAN THE SON OF GOD, the only-begotten and first-begotten Word?...” - (Against Hermogenes, ch. 18 , Roberts & Donaldson ANF 3.487.)


GREEK TEXT: “...ὡς μεγάλην ὄντα δύναμιν καὶ θεὸν κατὰ τὸν τῶν ὅλων θεὸν καὶ πατέρα. Τούτῳ γάρ φαμεν ἐν τῇ κατὰ Μωϋσέα κοσμοποιΐᾳ προστάττοντα τὸν πατέρα εἰρηκέναι τό· «Γενηθήτω φῶς» καὶ «Γενηθήτω στερέωμα» καὶ τὰ λοιπά, ὅσα προσέταξεν ὁ θεὸς γενέσθαι, καὶ τούτῳ εἰρηκέναι τό· «Ποιήσωμεν ἄνθρωπον κατ' εἰκόνα καὶ ὁμοίωσιν ἡμετέραν»· προσταχθέντα δὲ τὸν λόγον πεποιηκέναι πάντα, ὅσα ὁ πατὴρ αὐτῷ ἐνετείλατο...” - (BOOK II [Τόμος δεύτερος] Chapter 9, Contra. Celsus.)

ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA (circa. 185 to 254 C.E.): “...[him] being a great power and a god below the (definitive) God and Father of the entire universe. For according to what was said by Moses it was to him the Father gave orders to at the making of the world, declaring [His] command this way: “Let light come to be” and “Let the firmament come to be” along with the rest, inasmuch as the (definitive) God had given orders for things to come into existance. Also he spoke this order to him: “Be about making Man according to our image and likeness.” The Logos was doing everything he was commanded to do by the Father...” - (BOOK II [Τόμος δεύτερος] Chapter 9, Against Celsus, by Matt13weedhacker 12/4/11)
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., “...καὶ θεὸν κατὰ τὸν τῶν ὅλων θεὸν καὶ πατέρα...” = “...and a god below the (definitive) God and Father of the entire universe...” or "...the Universal God even the Father..." Gk., ( θεὸν ) = anathorus, Gk., ( κατὰ ) literally: “...down...”
 [FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( κοσμοποιΐᾳ ) = rare word for “creation” a compound word literally: “...world-making...”
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., (Πεποιηκέναι ) = to-do-for-another or act
[FOOTNOTE]: Gk., ( ἔλεγεν ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ τό ) possibly “...who spoke in Jesus this...”