Part 5 - Defending the WT 1956 August 15th Page 504
"Read three volumes of the works of Clement, presbyter of Alexandria, entitled Outlines, The Miscellanies, The Tutor. The Outlines contain a brief explanation and interpretation of certain passages in the Old and New Testaments. Although in some cases what he says appears orthodox, in others he indulges in impious and legendary fables. For he is of opinion that matter is eternal and that ideas are introduced by certain fixed conditions; he also reduces the Son to something created..." - 109 Clement Of Alexandria, "Outlines" PHOTIUS BIBLIOTHECA OR MYRIOBIBLON.Now lets look at the Greek text upon which these translations were based:
"...Correct doctrine is held firmly in some places but in other places he is carried away by odd and impious notions. He maintains the eternity of matter, produces a theory of ideas from the words of Holy Scripture, and reduces the Son to a mere creature..." - (As quoted at) The Writings Of St. Clement: 2. Outlines or Sketches (Hypotyposeis): CopticChurch.net
“...Ἀνεγνώσθη Κλήμεντος Ἀλεξανδρέως πρεσβυτέρου τεύχη βιβλίων τρία, ὧν τὸ μὲν ἐπιγραφὴν ἔλαχεν Ὑποτυπώσεις, τὸ δὲ Στρωματεύς, τὸ δὲ Παιδαγωγός. Αἱ μὲν οὖν Ὑποτυπώσεις διαλαμβάνουσι περὶ ῥητῶν τινῶν τῆς τε παλαιᾶς καὶ νέας γραφῆς, ὧν καὶ κεφαλαιωδῶς ὡς δῆθεν ἐξήγησίν τε καὶ ἑρμηνείαν ποιεῖται. Καὶ ἔν τισι μὲν αὐτῶν ὀρθῶς δοκεῖ λέγειν, ἔν τισι δὲ παντελῶς εἰς ἀσεβεῖς καὶ μυθώδεις λόγους ἐκφέρεται. Ὕλην τε γὰρ ἄχρονον καὶ ἰδέας ὡς ἀπό τινων ῥητῶν εἰσαγομένας δοξάζει, καὶ τὸν Υἱὸν εἰς κτίσμα κατάγει...” - 108.89α [ ̓ΑΠΟΓΡΑΦΗ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΝΑΡΙΘΜΗΣΙΣΤΩΝ ἈΝΕΓΝΩΣΜΕΝΩΝ ἩΜΙΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩ ὩΝ ἘΙΣ ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΩΔΗ ΔΙΑΓΝΩΣΙΝ Ὁ ἨΓΑΠΗΜΕΝΟΣ ἩΜΩΝ ἈΔΕΛΦΟΣ ΤΑΡΑΣΙΟΣ ΕΞΗΙΤΗΣΑΤΟ ἘΣΤΙ ΔΕ ΤΑΥΤΑ ἘΙΚΟΣΙ ΔΕΟΝΤΩΝ ἘΦ' ἙΝΙ ΤΡΙΑΚΟΣΙΑ] Patrologiae cursus completus. Series graeca. Edidit J.-P. MigneNow what does this Greek word (κτίσμα) actually mean?
"...(κτίσμα) 1 κτίζω anything created, a creature, NTest. 1 kti/sma, atos, to/..." - Liddell and Scott. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1889.Notice the Greek suffix or word ending (-μα). Word endings in Greek are important, let's see what this one means:
"...3. The result of an action is indicated by -μα (3)..." - Lexical Aids For Students of New testament Greek, Third Edition, Fifth Printing September 2002, Page 43.The action meant here is that of "creation"! Meaning Greek (τὸν Υἱὸν) "the Son" was acted upon by a Creator with the result being the production of a "creature."
So there can be no mistaking what Photius meant!
Compare the following scriptures that point to Jesus being a creature in both the Old Testament and the New Testament:
ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΛΟΣΣΑΕΙΣ (COLOSSIANS) 1:15 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics: "...ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου, πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως..."Notice in Prov 8:22 LXX the Greek word (ἔκτισέν) for being "created" is the same word used of God creating the universe in Josephus quotation of Genesis 1:1:
Literal Translation According to Word Order: "...Who is [an] icon (of) the God (of) the un-seen, first-(one)-born (of) all creation..."
ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ (REVELATION) 3:14 Greek NT: Westcott/Hort with Diacritics: "...Καὶ τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον· Τάδε λέγει ὁ ἀμήν, ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστὸς καὶ [ὁ] ἀληθινός, ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κτίσεως τοῦ θεοῦ..."
Literal Translation According to Word Order: "...And (to) the Angel (of) the in Laodicea congregation write: "Thus say's the Amen, the Witness the Faithful and the True, the beginning (of) the creation (of) the God..."
Greek OT: Septuagint with Diacritics; Proverbs 8:22: "...κύριος ἔκτισέν με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ..."
1. Literal Translation According to Word Order: "...LORD created me [a] beginning (of) way (of) him into work (of) him..."
2. Literal Translation According to Word Order: "...LORD created me beginning (of) [the] way (of) him first work (of) him..."
Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae (Greek) ed. William Whiston, A.M., Ed. Book 1, section 27: “...Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν...”Significantly, it was because of Photius comments about Clement calling Jesus a "creature" that actually got him removed from being considered a martyr in the Roman Catholic Church:
Literal Translation According to Word Order: "...In a beginning created the God the heaven and the earth..."
Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (English) ed. William Whiston, A.M., Ed. Book 1, section 27: “...In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth...”
“Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), d. c.215, Greek theologian. … He was long venerated as a saint, but Photius, in the 9th cent., regarded Clement as a heretic. Because of Photius's contentions the name of Clement was removed from the Roman martyrology.” - Clement Of Alexandria; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2007, Columbia University Press.Note this comment:
“...The Hypotyposes 1 in eight books, have not come down to us. Cassiodorus translated them into Latin, freely altering to suit his own ideas of orthodoxy. Both Eusebius and Photius describe the work. It was a short commentary on all the books of Scripture, including some of the apocryphal works, such as the Epistle of Barnabas and the Revelation of Peter. Photius speaks in strong language of the impiety of some opinions in the book (Bibl. cod. 109, p. 89 a Bekker)...” - Clement of Alexandria (CLASSIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Based on Encyclopedia Brittanica 11th Edition)This Encyclopedia tells us that despite Cassiodorus "freely altering" Clements writings in the Fifth Century "to suit his own ideas of orthodoxy" that what is left over in Clements writings was still enough for him to be considered a "blasphemous" heretic by Photius in the Ninth Century by calling the Son a "creature"!
Of course this Encyclopedia not wanting to upset the trinitarian's had to go on to argue that Photius was mistaken, of course, or that he had "a corrupt copy" of Clement. For this is unimaginable for our poor old trinitarian's.
Anyway, THE EVIDENCE HAS BEEN MOUNTING, and we haven't even looked at his own writings YET!
To be continued!